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QUESTION 1
Which address type does the IPv6 address FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 specify?
A. unspecified
B. aggregable global unicast
C. link local
D. site local unicast
E. multicast
Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: All IPv6 multicast addresses start with the first 8 bits of the address set to 1. Thus all multicast addresses start with the hexadecimal notation FF (1111 1111). The multicast range is as follows: FF00::/8 FFFF::/8 The second octet, following to the first octet of FF, identifies both the scope and the lifetime of the multicast address. In this way, IPv6 has millions of group multicast addresses to use in current and emerging technologies. Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide p.112
QUESTION 2
In IS-IS routing, which level is used to route between different areas within the same domain?
A. Level 0
B. Level 1
C. Level 2
D. Level 3
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 3
Exhibit, Network Topology You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. Which statement is true about the Certkiller .com network?

A. There is a match entry missing in the route-map REDIST-MAP permit 30 statement.
B. All routes not matching access list 101 or 110 will be flagged as an OSPF external type 2 with a metric of 5000.
C. There is a set entry missing in the route-map REDIST-MAP deny 20 statement.
D. All routes matching access list 110 will be forwarded.
E. The set metric-type entry is not a valid route-map command.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 4
Exhibit, Network topology You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. If the following command, default information-originate, is added to the OSPF configuration on Certkiller 1, what will the neighboring routers see in their route table?

A. S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 6.0.0.3, 00:28:00
B. O E1 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 6.0.0.3, 00:28:00
C. O E2 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 6.0.0.3, 00:28:00
D. No default routes will be propagated to neighboring routers.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 5
Exhibit, Network Topology You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. If the following command, variance 3, were added to Certkiller 5, which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X?

A. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1
B. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1.
C. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller A and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 1.
D. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1, Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1, and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4-Certkiller 1.
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 6
Exhibit, Network Topology

You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. Both Certkiller 5 and Certkiller 2 are performing two-way IGRP/RIP route redistribution. What behavior will Certkiller 2 use with the given Certkiller 2 configurations?
A. Updates about 192.168.1.0 that are learned through RIP will be ignored.
B. Updates about 192.168.1.0 will be advertised out the s0 interface.
C. Updates about 192.168.1.0 that are heard through the s1 interface will be ignored.
D. Updates about 192.168.1.0 that are learned through IGRP will be added to the routing table, but not advertised to Certkiller 1.
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 7
Exhibit, Network Topology You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. Which command will Certkiller 2 use to summarize routes for the 192.168.16.0/22 supernet before injecting them into Area 0?

A. area 10 range 192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0
B. summary-address 192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0
C. ip summary-address ospf 101.192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0
D. area 0 range 192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0
E. ip summary-address area 0 192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 8
Which three are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? Select three.
A. less frequent SPF calculations
B. fewer hello packets
C. smaller routing tables
D. reduced LSU overhead
E. fewer adjacencies needed
Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 9
Exhibit, Network Topology

You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. If the following command, variance 2, were added to Certkiller 5, which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X?
A. Only Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 1
B. Only Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1
C. Only Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1
D. Both Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1
E. Both Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 1
F. All available paths.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 10
Exhibit interface serial0 bandwidth 40 ip bandwidth-percent eigpr 1 200 In the configuration in the exhibit, how much bandwidth will be used by the EIGRP updates?
A. 40 kbps
B. 60 kbps
C. 80 kbps
D. 200 kbps
E. 40 Mbps
F. 60 Mbps
G. 80 Mbps
H. 200 Mbps
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 11
Which statement is true about EBGP?
A. An internal routing protocol can be used to reach an EBGP neighbor?
B. The next hop does not change when BGP updates are exchanged between EBGP neighbors.
C. A static route can be used to form an adjacency between neighbors.
D. EBGP requires a full mesh.
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 12
Which three are characteristics of IPv6? Select three.
A. An IPv6 address is 128 bits long.
B. An IPv6 address is 20 bits long.
C. An IPv6 header contains the next header field.
D. An IPv6 header contains the protocol field.
E. IPv6 routers send RA messages.
F. An IPv6 header contains the header checksum field.
Correct Answer: ACE Section: (none) Explanation QUESTION 13
Which three techniques can be used to transition from IPv4 to IPv6? Select three.
A. 6to4 tunneling
B. flow label
C. dual stack
D. anycast
E. NAT
F. mobile IP
Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 14
Exhibit, Network Topology

Exhibit You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Studyy the exhibit carefully. What is the effect of the distribute list command in the Certkiller 1 configuration?

A. Certkiller 1 will filter only the 172.24.1.0/24 route from the Certkiller 2 RIP updates.
B. Certkiller 1 will permit only the 10.0.0.0/24 route in the Certkiller 2 RIP updates.
C. Certkiller 1 will filter 10.1.0.0/24 and the 172.24.1.0/24 routes from the Certkiller 2 RIP updates.
D. Certkiller 1 will not filter any routes because there is no exact prefix match.
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 15
The Certkiller WAN is displayed in the following diagram:

When performing a show run on router Certkiller 1, you notice that two static entries shown above were
configured for the 10.0.0.0 network.
Which path will be selected by the router as the best path?

A. Per-destination load sharing will be implemented.
B. The path through Certkiller 2 will be used.
C. The path through Certkiller 3 will be used.
D. Per-packet load sharing will be implemented.
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: A static route configured using the interface is considered to be a directly connected route. Directly connected
routes have an administrative distance of 0, while all other static routes have and AD of 1. In this case, the route specifying the interface will be chosen over a static route that specifies the IP address of the next hop, because of the lower AD.
QUESTION 16
How many update packets would a RIPv2 router send to advertise 77 routes?
A. one update package
B. two update package
C. three update package
D. four update package
E. five update package
F. six update package
Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
RIP 2 Packet Format:
The RIP 2 specification (described in RFC 1723) allows more information to be included in RIP packets
and provides a simple authentication mechanism that is not supported by RIP. Figure 47-2 shows the IP
RIP 2
packet format.
The following descriptions summarize the IP RIP 2 packet format fields illustrated in Figure 47-2:
1.
Command-Indicates whether the packet is a request or a response. The request asks that a router send all or a part of its routing table. The response can be an unsolicited regular routing update or a reply to a request. Responses contain routing table entries. Multiple RIP packets are used to convey information from large routing tables.

2.
Version-Specifies the RIP version used. In a RIP packet implementing any of the RIP 2 fields or using authentication, this value is set to 2.

3.
Unused-Has a value set to zero.

4.
Address-family identifier (AFI)-Specifies the address family used. RIPv2’s AFI field functions identically to RFC 1058 RIP’s AFI field, with one exception: If the AFI for the first entry in the message is 0xFFFF, the remainder of the entry contains authentication information. Currently, the only authentication type is simple password.

5.
Route tag-Provides a method for distinguishing between internal routes (learned by RIP) and external routes (learned from other protocols).

6.
IP address-Specifies the IP address for the entry.

7.
Subnet mask-Contains the subnet mask for the entry. If this field is zero, no subnet mask has been specified for the entry.

8.
Next hop-Indicates the IP address of the next hop to which packets for the entry should be forwarded.

9.
Metric-Indicates how many internetwork hops (routers) have been traversed in the trip to the destination. This value is between 1 and 15 for a valid route, or 16 for an unreachable route. NoteUp to 25 occurrences of the AFI, Address, and Metric fields are permitted in a single IP RIP packet. That is, up to 25 routing table entries can be listed in a single RIP packet. If the AFI specifies an authenticated message, only 24 routing table entries can be specified. Given that individual table entries aren’t fragmented into multiple packets, RIP does not need a mechanism to resequence datagrams bearing routing table updates from neighboring routers. Since a single update packet can contain at most 25 route entries, 4 packets will be needed to advertise 77 routes.
QUESTION 17
What are three disadvantages of a router-on-stick configuration for InterVLAN routing? (Choose three)
A. InterVLAN routing cannot be filtered by the router.
B. The router becomes a single point of failure for the network.
C. Routers will not route STP BPDUs.
D. There is a possibility of inadequate bandwidth for each VLAN.
E. Additional overhead on the router can occur.
F. NetFlow Switching is required for InterVLAN accounting.
Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
When a single interface is used to route between subnets or networks, this is know as a router-on-a-stick.
To assign multiple IP addresses to the same interface, secondary addresses or subinterfaces are used.
The Advantage is that it is useful when there are limited Ethernet interfaces on the router.
The Disadvantages to this design are:
subnets. resources that will be consumed on the router can become an issue.

QUESTION 18
What are three characteristics of RIPv2? (Choose three)
A. Supports variable-length subnet mask by default.
B. Does not support variable-length subnet mask by default.
C. Supports discontiguous networks by default.
D. Multicast updates to 224.0.0.9.
E. Broadcast updates.
Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Features of RIP v2 To help today’s IP internetworks minimize broadcast traffic, use variable length subnetting to conserve IP addresses, and secure their routing environment from misconfigured or malicious routers, several key features were added to RIP v2. Multicasted RIP Announcements Rather than broadcasting RIP announcements, RIP v2 supports sending RIP announcements to the IP multicast address of 224.0.0.9. Non-RIP nodes are not disturbed by RIP router announcement traffic. Subnet Masks RIP v2 announcements send the subnet mask (also known as a network mask) along with the network ID. RIP v2 can be used in subnetted, supernetted, and variable-length subnet mask environments. Subnets of a network ID do not have to be contiguous (they can be disjointed subnets).
QUESTION 19
The Bellman-Ford algorithm is used by the grand majority of distance vector routing protocols in DUAL (diffusing update algorithm). Which of the following routing protocols is it?
A. IGRP
B. OSPF
C. EIGRP
D. RIP v.2
E. RIP v.1
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: DUAL is used by EIGRP. The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is the algorithm used to obtain loop-freedom at every instant throughout a route computation. This allows all routers involved in a topology change to synchronize at the same time. Routers that are not affected by topology changes are not involved in the recomputation. The DUAL finite state machine embodies the decision process for all route computations. It tracks all routes advertised by all neighbors. The distance information, known as a metric, is used by DUAL to select efficient loop free paths. DUAL selects routes to be inserted into a routing table based on feasible successors. A successor is a neighboring router used for packet forwarding that has a least cost path to a destination that is guaranteed not to be part of a routing loop. When there are no feasible successors but there are neighbors advertising the destination, a recomputation must occur.
QUESTION 20
The Certkiller EIGRP network is displayed in the following topology diagram:

You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. If the command “variance 3” was added to the EIGRP configuration of Certkiller 5, which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X?
A. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1
B. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1.
C. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller A and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 1.
D. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1, Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1, and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4-Certkiller 1.

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. In addition to that, IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination, where n is the number specified by the variance command. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128, with the default being 1, which means equal cost load balancing. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs, proportionately, with respect to the metric. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_tech_note09186a008009437d.shtml
QUESTION 21
What is the purpose of the “eigrp stub” configuration command?
A. To increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range.
B. To reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes in the EIGRP stub router.
C. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router.
D. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router.
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Complex, redundant EIGRP networks can cause scalability problems. The best solution to this is to provide a means within the context of the EIGRP protocol itself to control traffic flows and limit query depth. TheEIGRP Stub Router functionality in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(7)T can achieve this solution. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network, one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries, connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the message “inaccessible.” A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes, and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers.
QUESTION 22
The Certkiller OSPF network is displayed below: Refer to the exhibit. All routers have converged and neighbor relationships have been established. Which state is Certkiller 4 in?

A. 2WAY/DROTHER
B. 2WAY/BDR
C. 2WAY/DR
D. FULL/DROTHER
E. FULL/BDR
F. FULL/DR

Correct Answer: F Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The router with the highest OSPF priority on a segment will become the DR for that segment. The same process is repeated for the BDR. In case of a tie, the router with the highest RID will win. The default for the interface OSPF priority is one. Based on the output above, the dead timer shows that the neighbor relationships have already been established, so the state will be Full for all neighbors, and since the OSPF priorities are all set to 1, the router with the highest router ID will be the DR.
QUESTION 23
The Certkiller backbone OSPF network is shown below:

Refer to the exhibit. All routers have been simultaneously rebooted, and neighbor relationships have been established. Which two statements are true? (Choose two.)
A. The Certkiller 1 RID is 1.1.1.1.
B. The Certkiller 1 RID is 10.1.1.1.
C. The Certkiller 1 RID is 192.168.1.1.
D. The Certkiller 2 RID is 10.1.1.2.
E. The Certkiller 2 RID is 192.168.1.2.
F. The Certkiller 2 RID is 192.168.2.1.
Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Remember that the RID is the highest IP address on the box or the loopback interface, calculated at boot time or whenever the OSPF process is restarted. Although the other interfaces on routers Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are higher, the loopback interface is always used as the router ID. If more than one loopback interface is configured, the loopback interface with the highest IP address is chosen as the Router ID.
QUESTION 24

Which type of Link State Announcement will Certkiller E use to announce changes in network 22 to Area 1?
A. Type 1 LSA
B. Type 2 LSA
C. Type 3 LSA
D. Type 4 LSA
E. Type 5 LSA

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The external link LSA is originated by AS boundary routers and is flooded throughout the AS. Each external advertisement describes a router to a destination in another autonomous system. Default routes for the AS can also be described by AS external advertisements. This is identified as a Type 5 LSA.
QUESTION 25
What is the OSPF cost for the 100 Mbps Ethernet media type?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 6
D. 10
E. 100
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
By default, OSPF uses the formula of 100,000,000 (100M) divided by bandwidth, or 100,000,000/BW. For
a
100M fast Ethernet connection, the formula is 100M/100M = 1.

QUESTION 26
As a Certkiller .com network technician you are required to drag the appropriate IS-IS routing item to its correct definition.

A.
B.
C.
D.
Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
QUESTION 27
Given the NSAP 39.0100.0102.0001.0c00.1211.00, which portion is interpreted by IS-IS as the area?
B. 39.0100
C. 39.0100.0102
D. 0001
E. 0001.0c00
F. 0001.0c00.1211
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: A NET is a NSAP where the last byte is always zero. On a router running IS-IS, a NET can be 8 to 20 B in length. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero. The n-selector indicates which transport entity the packet is sent to. An n-selector of zero indicates no transport entity, and means that the packet is for the routing software of the system. The six bytes directly preceding the n-selector are the system ID. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (Level 1) and throughout the backbone (Level 2). All bytes preceding the system ID are the area ID. The area ID field is the portion of the NSAP preceding the system ID. The following example shows a router with area ID 47.0004.004d.0001 and system ID 0001.0c11.1110: 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1110.00 In our example, the six bytes preceding the N selector is 0001.0c00.1211 which is the system ID. The portion preceding this, 39.0100.0102, is the area ID.
QUESTION 28
Which two commands can be used to verify that RIPv2 authentication is working properly to ensure that RIP neighbors form adjacencies properly? (Choose two.)
A. show interface
B. show ip route
C. show ip protocols
D. debug ip rip
E. debug ip rip authentication
Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Verifying Plain Text Authentication RIP version 2 routers can use either plain text or MD5 authentication. By configuring the routers using RIPv2 authentication, all routing update exchanges will be authenticated before being accepted. This can be verified by observing the output obtained from thedebugip rip and show ip route commands. RB#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on *Mar 3
02:11:39.207: RIP: received packet with text authentication 234 *Mar 3 02:11:39.211: RIP: received v2 update from 141.108.0.10 on Serial0 *Mar 3 02:11:39.211: RIP: 70.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops RB#show ip route R 70.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 141.108.0.10, 00:00:25, Serial0 80.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C
80.80.80.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 141.108.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 141.108.0.8 is directly connected, Serial0 Using plain text authentication improves the network design by preventing the addition of routing updates originated by routers not meant to take part in the local routing exchange process. However, this type of authentication is not secure. The password (234 in this example) is exchanged in plain text. It can be captured easily and thus exploited. As mentioned before, MD5 authentication must be preferred over plain text authentication when security is an issue. Verifying MD5 Authentication By configuring the RA and RB routers as shown above, all routing update exchanges will be authenticated before being accepted. This can be verified by observing the output obtained from the debug ip rip and show ip route commands. RB#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on *Mar 3 20:48:37.046: RIP: received packet with MD5 authentication *Mar 3 20:48:37.046: RIP: received v2 update from
141.108.0.10 on Serial0 *Mar 3 20:48:37.050: 70.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops RB#show ip route R 70.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 141.108.0.10, 00:00:03, Serial0 80.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 80.80.80.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 141.108.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 141.108.0.8 is directly connected, Serial0 MD5 authentication uses the one-way, MD5 hash algorithm, acknowledged to be a strong hashing algorithm. In this mode of authentication, the routing update does not carry the password for the purpose of authentication. Rather, a 128-bit message, generated by running the MD5 algorithm on the password, and the message are sent along for authentication. Thus, it is recommended to use MD5 authentication over plain text authentication since it is more secure. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080093f1c.shtml#veri
QUESTION 29

1.
all routers are using BGP

2.
synchronization is OFF in AS 647000
A. Router CK6
B. Routers CK2 and CK6
C. Routers CK2 , CK4 , and CK6
D. Routers CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , and CK6
E. Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , and CK6
F. Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , CK5 , and CK6
G. It will not be propagated to any other router

Correct Answer: FEACDGB Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 30

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
QUESTION 31
Which attribute must exist in the BGP update packet?
A. LOCAL_PREF
B. AGGREGATOR
C. AS_Path
D. Weight
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The AS PATH is a well known mandatory attribute. Mandatory means that it is required by all routers.
These
attributes are required and are therefore recognized by all BGP implementations.

QUESTION 32
BGP contains two paths to a destination. Assuming both routes were originated locally and have an equal weight, what will be the next determining factor in choosing the best path?
A. lowest MED
B. highest local preference
C. lowest neighbor IP address
D. lowest origin code
E. shortest AS-path
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
How the Best Path Algorithm Works:
BGP assigns the first valid path as the current best path. It then compares the best path with the next path
in list, until it reaches the end of the list of valid paths. The following is a list of rules used to determine the
best path.

1.
Prefer the path with the highest WEIGHT. Note: WEIGHT is a Cisco-specific parameter, local to the router on which it’s configured.

2.
Prefer the path with the highest LOCAL_PREF.

3.
Prefer the path that was locally originated via a network or aggregate BGP subcommand, or through redistribution from an IGP. Local paths sourced by network or redistribute commands are preferred over local aggregates sourced by the aggregate-address command.

4.
Prefer the path with the shortest AS_PATH. Note the following:

5.
Prefer the path with the lowest origin type: IGP is lower than EGP, and EGP is lower than INCOMPLETE.

6.
Prefer the path with the lowest multi-exit discriminator (MED). Note the following:

7.
Prefer external (eBGP) over internal (iBGP) paths. If bestpath is selected, go to Step 9 (multipath).

8.
Prefer the path with the lowest IGP metric to the BGP next hop. Continue, even if bestpath is already selected.

9.
Check if multiple paths need to be installed in the routing table for BGP Multipath. Continue, if bestpath is not selected yet.

10.
When both paths are external, prefer the path that was received first (the oldest one). This step minimizes route-flap, since a newer path will not displace an older one, even if it would be the preferred route based on the next decision criteria (Steps 11, 12, and 13).

11.
Prefer the route coming from the BGP router with the lowest router ID. The router ID is the highest IP address on the router, with preference given to loopback addresses. It can also be set manually using the bgp router-id command.

12.
If the originator or router ID is the same for multiple paths, prefer the path with the minimum cluster list length. This will only be present in BGP route-reflector environments. It allows clients to peer with RRs or clients in other clusters. In this scenario, the client must be aware of the RR-specific BGP attribute.

13.
Prefer the path coming from the lowest neighbor address. This is the IP address used in the BGP neighbor configuration, and corresponds to the remote peer used in the TCP connection with the local router.
QUESTION 33
The Certkiller WAN is displayed below:

You work as an administrator at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully.
BGP is configured on all routers, synchronization is turned off, and one of the default attributes have
been changed except the MED attribute on Certkiller 5.
Which path is preferred by Certkiller 2 to reach the network 200.200.200.0/24?

A. Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 because it is the shortest path.
B. Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 because it has a higher metric.
C. Certkiller 3- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 5 because it has a lower administrative distance.
D. Certkiller 3- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 5 because it has a lower metric.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
In BGP, the lowest MED metric is preferred over a higher metric. By default, the value of the metric is 0, so
for AS 200, the path via Certkiller 5 will have a metric of 0, and the path via Certkiller 1 will have a metric of
150, so the path from Certkiller 5 will be preferred.

QUESTION 34
Which BGP path attribute is Cisco proprietary?
A. weight
B. MED
C. local preference
D. origin
E. next-hop
F. AS-path
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The WEIGHT attribute is a Cisco proprietary feature used to measure a route’s preference. The WEIGHT inbound route maps. Use the WEIGHT attribute to influence routes from multiple service providers to a central location. Like LOCAL_PREF, assigning a higher weight to a route makes that route more preferred. The WEIGHT attribute also has the highest precedence of any BGP attribute. Reference: CCIE Practical Studies: Configuring Route-Maps and Policy-based Routing, Karl Solie, Cisco Press.
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QUESTION 78
You are the network administrator at Flydumps. You are in the planning stages of upgrading the Certkiller network, and need to decide which protocol to use. You need to choose a protocol that will meet the following goals: Supports classless routing Supports VLSM Does not rely on TCP/IP to exchange routing information Performs auto-summarization by default Allows for manual route summarization Which routing protocol should you implement on the Certkiller network?
A. BGP
B. EIGRP
C. OSPF
D. IS-IS
E. IGRP
F. RIPv2

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: EIGRP is a classless protocol that supports VLSM and performs auto-summarization of subnets by default. The subnet routes are summarized into a single network number aggregate. In addition, IP-EIGRP will allow aggregation on any bit boundary in an IP address and can be configured on a network interface for additional granularity. EIGRP also supports automatic summarization of network addresses at major network borders. There is an automatic redistribution mechanism used so IGRP routes are imported into EIGRP and vice versa. Since the metrics for both protocols are directly translatable, they are easily comparable as if they were routes that originated in their own AS.
QUESTION 79
Which routing protocol: (1) is intended to support large routing domains consisting of combinations of many media types, (2) may be used as an IGP, and (3) supports multiple routed protocols in an integrated manner rather than “Ships in the Night” method?
A. EIGRP
B. OSPF
C. IS-IS
D. BGP
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
EIGRP is a very scalable Interior Routing Protocol (IGP) that supports large networks. In
addition to support for IP, EIGRP can be used for routing IPX and Appletalk networks.
Incorrect Answers:
B, C: Although OSPF and IS-IS are link state protocols that are used as IGPs and are highly
scalable, they do not provide support for routed networks such as those used by Novell and
Apple.

D: BGP only supports IP, and is generally used only for external routing.
QUESTION 80
Match the correct routing protocol on the left to its characteristics on the right side. Note that not all answer choices will be used.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 81
PDR is being used as the routing protocol for a new Certkiller network. Which network topology is best suited for ODR?
A. highly redundant
B. fully meshed
C. dual self-healing ring
D. hub and spoke
E. NBMA

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: On Demand Routing (ODR) is a mechanism that provides minimum-overhead IP routing for stub sites. The overhead of a general dynamic routing protocol is avoided, without incurring the configuration and management overhead of using static routing. A stub router is the peripheral router in a hub and spoke network topology. Stub routers commonly have a WAN connection to the hub router and a small number of LAN network segments (stub networks) that are connected directly to the stub router. To provide full connectivity, the hub routers can be statically configured to know that a particular stub network is reachable via a specified access router. However, if there are multiple hub routers, many stub networks, or asynchronous connections between hubs and spokes, the overhead required to statically configure knowledge of the stub networks on the hub routers becomes too great. ODR simplifies installation of IP stub networks in which the hub routers dynamically maintain routes to the stub networks. This is accomplished without requiring the configuration of an IP routing protocol at the stub routers. With ODR, the stub advertises IP prefixes corresponding to the IP networks that are configured on its directly connected interfaces. Because ODR advertises IP prefixes, rather than IP network numbers, ODR is able to carry Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) information. Once ODR is enabled on a hub router, the router begins installing stub network routes in the IP forwarding table. The hub router can also be configured to redistribute these routes into any configured dynamic IP routing protocols. IP does not need to be configured on the stub router. With ODR, a router is automatically considered to be a stub when no IP routing protocols have been configured on it.
QUESTION 82
Your company, Certkiller Inc, has a central office and a remote branch office. Each site has a separate autonomous system (AS) as well as a separate Internet connection. In this network, what is the best method to route Internet traffic.
A. IGP routing
B. BGP routing
C. Configure “ip route prefix mask”
D. Configure “ip default-gateway ip address”
E. Configure IS-IS

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used to exchange routing information for the Internet and is the protocol used between Internet service providers (ISP). In order to take full advantage of multiple Internet connections, as well as multiple Internet providers, BGP is the best choice to ensure full redundancy. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/bgp.htm Incorrect Answers:
A: Customer networks usually employ an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as RIP or OSPF for the exchange of routing information within their networks. C, D: Using statically assigned default routes and default gateways is a simplistic approach that works well in many situations, but will not provide for automatic failover and does not provide the routing options that BGP provides.
E: IS-IS is used exclusively as an IGP.
QUESTION 83
The Certkiller network is in the process of migrating the IP address scheme to use IPv6. Which of the following address types are associated with IPv6? (Select three)
A. Unicast
B. Private
C. Broadcast
D. Public
E. Multicast
F. Anycast

Correct Answer: AEF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
IP version 6 introduced the concet of anycasts. The three IP address types used for IPv6 are:

Unicast – An IPv6 unicast address is an identifier for a single interface, on a single node. A packet that is
sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address.
Anycast – An anycast address is an address that is assigned to a set of interfaces that typically belong to
different nodes. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the closest interface-as defined by the
routing protocols in use-identified by the anycast address.
Multicast – An IPv6 multicast address is an IPv6 address that has a prefix of FF00::/8 (11111111). An IPv6
multicast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes. Reference:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1839/products_feature_guide_chapter0918
6a0080110dd2.html#99899

QUESTION 84
What number is a valid representation for the 200F:0000:AB00:0000:0000:0000:0000/56 IPv6 prefix?
A. 200F:0:0:AB/56
B. 200F:0:AB00::/56
C. 200F::AB00/56
D. 200F:AB/56

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Due to the method of allocating certain styles of IPv6 addresses, it will be common for addresses to contain long strings of zero bits. In order to make writing addresses containing zero bits easier a special syntax is available to compress the zeros. The use of “::” indicates multiple groups of 16-bits of zeros. The “::” can only appear once in an address. The “::” can also be used to compress the leading and/or trailing zeros in an address. For example the following addresses: 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A a unicast address FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:43 a multicast address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 the loopback address
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 the unspecified addresses may be represented as: 1080::8:800:200C:417A a unicast address FF01::43 a multicast address ::1 the loopback address :: the unspecified addresses In our example, the trailing zero’s can be compressed into ::, giving us 200F:0:AB00:: as the address.

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QUESTION 16
How many update packets would a RIPv2 router send to advertise 77 routes?
A. one update package
B. two update package
C. three update package
D. four update package
E. five update package
F. six update package
Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
RIP 2 Packet Format:
The RIP 2 specification (described in RFC 1723) allows more information to be included in RIP packets
and provides a simple authentication mechanism that is not supported by RIP. Figure 47-2 shows the IP
RIP 2
packet format.
The following descriptions summarize the IP RIP 2 packet format fields illustrated in Figure 47-2:
1.
Command-Indicates whether the packet is a request or a response. The request asks that a router send all or a part of its routing table. The response can be an unsolicited regular routing update or a reply to a request. Responses contain routing table entries. Multiple RIP packets are used to convey information from large routing tables.

2.
Version-Specifies the RIP version used. In a RIP packet implementing any of the RIP 2 fields or using authentication, this value is set to 2.

3.
Unused-Has a value set to zero.

4.
Address-family identifier (AFI)-Specifies the address family used. RIPv2’s AFI field functions identically to RFC 1058 RIP’s AFI field, with one exception: If the AFI for the first entry in the message is 0xFFFF, the remainder of the entry contains authentication information. Currently, the only authentication type is simple password.

5.
Route tag-Provides a method for distinguishing between internal routes (learned by RIP) and external routes (learned from other protocols).

6.
IP address-Specifies the IP address for the entry.

7.
Subnet mask-Contains the subnet mask for the entry. If this field is zero, no subnet mask has been specified for the entry.

8.
Next hop-Indicates the IP address of the next hop to which packets for the entry should be forwarded.

9.
Metric-Indicates how many internetwork hops (routers) have been traversed in the trip to the destination. This value is between 1 and 15 for a valid route, or 16 for an unreachable route. NoteUp to 25 occurrences of the AFI, Address, and Metric fields are permitted in a single IP RIP packet. That is, up to 25 routing table entries can be listed in a single RIP packet. If the AFI specifies an authenticated message, only 24 routing table entries can be specified. Given that individual table entries aren’t fragmented into multiple packets, RIP does not need a mechanism to resequence datagrams bearing routing table updates from neighboring routers. Since a single update packet can contain at most 25 route entries, 4 packets will be needed to advertise 77 routes.
QUESTION 17
What are three disadvantages of a router-on-stick configuration for InterVLAN routing? (Choose three)
A. InterVLAN routing cannot be filtered by the router.
B. The router becomes a single point of failure for the network.
C. Routers will not route STP BPDUs.
D. There is a possibility of inadequate bandwidth for each VLAN.
E. Additional overhead on the router can occur.
F. NetFlow Switching is required for InterVLAN accounting.
Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
When a single interface is used to route between subnets or networks, this is know as a router-on-a-stick.
To assign multiple IP addresses to the same interface, secondary addresses or subinterfaces are used.
The Advantage is that it is useful when there are limited Ethernet interfaces on the router.
The Disadvantages to this design are:
subnets. resources that will be consumed on the router can become an issue.

QUESTION 18
What are three characteristics of RIPv2? (Choose three)
A. Supports variable-length subnet mask by default.
B. Does not support variable-length subnet mask by default.
C. Supports discontiguous networks by default.
D. Multicast updates to 224.0.0.9.
E. Broadcast updates.
Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Features of RIP v2 To help today’s IP internetworks minimize broadcast traffic, use variable length subnetting to conserve IP addresses, and secure their routing environment from misconfigured or malicious routers, several key features were added to RIP v2. Multicasted RIP Announcements Rather than broadcasting RIP announcements, RIP v2 supports sending RIP announcements to the IP multicast address of 224.0.0.9. Non-RIP nodes are not disturbed by RIP router announcement traffic. Subnet Masks RIP v2 announcements send the subnet mask (also known as a network mask) along with the network ID. RIP v2 can be used in subnetted, supernetted, and variable-length subnet mask environments. Subnets of a network ID do not have to be contiguous (they can be disjointed subnets).
QUESTION 19
The Bellman-Ford algorithm is used by the grand majority of distance vector routing protocols in DUAL (diffusing update algorithm). Which of the following routing protocols is it?
A. IGRP
B. OSPF
C. EIGRP
D. RIP v.2
E. RIP v.1
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: DUAL is used by EIGRP. The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is the algorithm used to obtain loop-freedom at every instant throughout a route computation. This allows all routers involved in a topology change to synchronize at the same time. Routers that are not affected by topology changes are not involved in the recomputation. The DUAL finite state machine embodies the decision process for all route computations. It tracks all routes advertised by all neighbors. The distance information, known as a metric, is used by DUAL to select efficient loop free paths. DUAL selects routes to be inserted into a routing table based on feasible successors. A successor is a neighboring router used for packet forwarding that has a least cost path to a destination that is guaranteed not to be part of a routing loop. When there are no feasible successors but there are neighbors advertising the destination, a recomputation must occur.
QUESTION 20
The Certkiller EIGRP network is displayed in the following topology diagram:

You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully. If the command “variance 3” was added to the EIGRP configuration of Certkiller 5, which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X?
A. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1
B. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1.
C. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller A and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 1.
D. Certkiller 5- Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1, Certkiller 5- Certkiller 3- Certkiller 1, and Certkiller 5- Certkiller 4-Certkiller 1.

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. In addition to that, IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination, where n is the number specified by the variance command. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128, with the default being 1, which means equal cost load balancing. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs, proportionately, with respect to the metric. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_tech_note09186a008009437d.shtml
QUESTION 21
What is the purpose of the “eigrp stub” configuration command?
A. To increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range.
B. To reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes in the EIGRP stub router.
C. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router.
D. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router.
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Complex, redundant EIGRP networks can cause scalability problems. The best solution to this is to provide a means within the context of the EIGRP protocol itself to control traffic flows and limit query depth. TheEIGRP Stub Router functionality in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(7)T can achieve this solution. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network, one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries, connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the message “inaccessible.” A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes, and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers.
QUESTION 22
The Certkiller OSPF network is displayed below: Refer to the exhibit. All routers have converged and neighbor relationships have been established. Which state is Certkiller 4 in?

A. 2WAY/DROTHER
B. 2WAY/BDR
C. 2WAY/DR
D. FULL/DROTHER
E. FULL/BDR
F. FULL/DR

Correct Answer: F Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The router with the highest OSPF priority on a segment will become the DR for that segment. The same process is repeated for the BDR. In case of a tie, the router with the highest RID will win. The default for the interface OSPF priority is one. Based on the output above, the dead timer shows that the neighbor relationships have already been established, so the state will be Full for all neighbors, and since the OSPF priorities are all set to 1, the router with the highest router ID will be the DR.
QUESTION 23
The Certkiller backbone OSPF network is shown below:

Refer to the exhibit. All routers have been simultaneously rebooted, and neighbor relationships have been established. Which two statements are true? (Choose two.)
A. The Certkiller 1 RID is 1.1.1.1.
B. The Certkiller 1 RID is 10.1.1.1.
C. The Certkiller 1 RID is 192.168.1.1.
D. The Certkiller 2 RID is 10.1.1.2.
E. The Certkiller 2 RID is 192.168.1.2.
F. The Certkiller 2 RID is 192.168.2.1.
Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Remember that the RID is the highest IP address on the box or the loopback interface, calculated at boot time or whenever the OSPF process is restarted. Although the other interfaces on routers Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are higher, the loopback interface is always used as the router ID. If more than one loopback interface is configured, the loopback interface with the highest IP address is chosen as the Router ID.
QUESTION 24

Which type of Link State Announcement will Certkiller E use to announce changes in network 22 to Area 1?
A. Type 1 LSA
B. Type 2 LSA
C. Type 3 LSA
D. Type 4 LSA
E. Type 5 LSA

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The external link LSA is originated by AS boundary routers and is flooded throughout the AS. Each external advertisement describes a router to a destination in another autonomous system. Default routes for the AS can also be described by AS external advertisements. This is identified as a Type 5 LSA.
QUESTION 25
What is the OSPF cost for the 100 Mbps Ethernet media type?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 6
D. 10
E. 100
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
By default, OSPF uses the formula of 100,000,000 (100M) divided by bandwidth, or 100,000,000/BW. For
a
100M fast Ethernet connection, the formula is 100M/100M = 1.

QUESTION 26
As a Certkiller .com network technician you are required to drag the appropriate IS-IS routing item to its correct definition.

A.
B.
C.
D.
Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
QUESTION 27
Given the NSAP 39.0100.0102.0001.0c00.1211.00, which portion is interpreted by IS-IS as the area?
B. 39.0100
C. 39.0100.0102
D. 0001
E. 0001.0c00
F. 0001.0c00.1211
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: A NET is a NSAP where the last byte is always zero. On a router running IS-IS, a NET can be 8 to 20 B in length. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero. The n-selector indicates which transport entity the packet is sent to. An n-selector of zero indicates no transport entity, and means that the packet is for the routing software of the system. The six bytes directly preceding the n-selector are the system ID. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (Level 1) and throughout the backbone (Level 2). All bytes preceding the system ID are the area ID. The area ID field is the portion of the NSAP preceding the system ID. The following example shows a router with area ID 47.0004.004d.0001 and system ID 0001.0c11.1110: 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1110.00 In our example, the six bytes preceding the N selector is 0001.0c00.1211 which is the system ID. The portion preceding this, 39.0100.0102, is the area ID.
QUESTION 28
Which two commands can be used to verify that RIPv2 authentication is working properly to ensure that RIP neighbors form adjacencies properly? (Choose two.)
A. show interface
B. show ip route
C. show ip protocols
D. debug ip rip
E. debug ip rip authentication
Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Verifying Plain Text Authentication RIP version 2 routers can use either plain text or MD5 authentication. By configuring the routers using RIPv2 authentication, all routing update exchanges will be authenticated before being accepted. This can be verified by observing the output obtained from thedebugip rip and show ip route commands. RB#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on *Mar 3
02:11:39.207: RIP: received packet with text authentication 234 *Mar 3 02:11:39.211: RIP: received v2 update from 141.108.0.10 on Serial0 *Mar 3 02:11:39.211: RIP: 70.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops RB#show ip route R 70.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 141.108.0.10, 00:00:25, Serial0 80.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C
80.80.80.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 141.108.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 141.108.0.8 is directly connected, Serial0 Using plain text authentication improves the network design by preventing the addition of routing updates originated by routers not meant to take part in the local routing exchange process. However, this type of authentication is not secure. The password (234 in this example) is exchanged in plain text. It can be captured easily and thus exploited. As mentioned before, MD5 authentication must be preferred over plain text authentication when security is an issue. Verifying MD5 Authentication By configuring the RA and RB routers as shown above, all routing update exchanges will be authenticated before being accepted. This can be verified by observing the output obtained from the debug ip rip and show ip route commands. RB#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on *Mar 3 20:48:37.046: RIP: received packet with MD5 authentication *Mar 3 20:48:37.046: RIP: received v2 update from
141.108.0.10 on Serial0 *Mar 3 20:48:37.050: 70.0.0.0/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops RB#show ip route R 70.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 141.108.0.10, 00:00:03, Serial0 80.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 80.80.80.0 is directly connected, Loopback0 141.108.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 141.108.0.8 is directly connected, Serial0 MD5 authentication uses the one-way, MD5 hash algorithm, acknowledged to be a strong hashing algorithm. In this mode of authentication, the routing update does not carry the password for the purpose of authentication. Rather, a 128-bit message, generated by running the MD5 algorithm on the password, and the message are sent along for authentication. Thus, it is recommended to use MD5 authentication over plain text authentication since it is more secure. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080093f1c.shtml#veri
QUESTION 29

1.
all routers are using BGP

2.
synchronization is OFF in AS 647000
A. Router CK6
B. Routers CK2 and CK6
C. Routers CK2 , CK4 , and CK6
D. Routers CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , and CK6
E. Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , and CK6
F. Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , CK5 , and CK6
G. It will not be propagated to any other router

Correct Answer: FEACDGB Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 30

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
QUESTION 31
Which attribute must exist in the BGP update packet?
A. LOCAL_PREF
B. AGGREGATOR
C. AS_Path
D. Weight
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The AS PATH is a well known mandatory attribute. Mandatory means that it is required by all routers.
These
attributes are required and are therefore recognized by all BGP implementations.

QUESTION 32
BGP contains two paths to a destination. Assuming both routes were originated locally and have an equal weight, what will be the next determining factor in choosing the best path?
A. lowest MED
B. highest local preference
C. lowest neighbor IP address
D. lowest origin code
E. shortest AS-path
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
How the Best Path Algorithm Works:
BGP assigns the first valid path as the current best path. It then compares the best path with the next path
in list, until it reaches the end of the list of valid paths. The following is a list of rules used to determine the
best path.

1.
Prefer the path with the highest WEIGHT. Note: WEIGHT is a Cisco-specific parameter, local to the router on which it’s configured.

2.
Prefer the path with the highest LOCAL_PREF.

3.
Prefer the path that was locally originated via a network or aggregate BGP subcommand, or through redistribution from an IGP. Local paths sourced by network or redistribute commands are preferred over local aggregates sourced by the aggregate-address command.

4.
Prefer the path with the shortest AS_PATH. Note the following:

5.
Prefer the path with the lowest origin type: IGP is lower than EGP, and EGP is lower than INCOMPLETE.

6.
Prefer the path with the lowest multi-exit discriminator (MED). Note the following:

7.
Prefer external (eBGP) over internal (iBGP) paths. If bestpath is selected, go to Step 9 (multipath).

8.
Prefer the path with the lowest IGP metric to the BGP next hop. Continue, even if bestpath is already selected.

9.
Check if multiple paths need to be installed in the routing table for BGP Multipath. Continue, if bestpath is not selected yet.

10.
When both paths are external, prefer the path that was received first (the oldest one). This step minimizes route-flap, since a newer path will not displace an older one, even if it would be the preferred route based on the next decision criteria (Steps 11, 12, and 13).

11.
Prefer the route coming from the BGP router with the lowest router ID. The router ID is the highest IP address on the router, with preference given to loopback addresses. It can also be set manually using the bgp router-id command.

12.
If the originator or router ID is the same for multiple paths, prefer the path with the minimum cluster list length. This will only be present in BGP route-reflector environments. It allows clients to peer with RRs or clients in other clusters. In this scenario, the client must be aware of the RR-specific BGP attribute.

13.
Prefer the path coming from the lowest neighbor address. This is the IP address used in the BGP neighbor configuration, and corresponds to the remote peer used in the TCP connection with the local router.
QUESTION 33
The Certkiller WAN is displayed below:

You work as an administrator at Certkiller .com. Study the exhibits carefully.
BGP is configured on all routers, synchronization is turned off, and one of the default attributes have
been changed except the MED attribute on Certkiller 5.
Which path is preferred by Certkiller 2 to reach the network 200.200.200.0/24?

A. Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 because it is the shortest path.
B. Certkiller 2- Certkiller 1 because it has a higher metric.
C. Certkiller 3- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 5 because it has a lower administrative distance.
D. Certkiller 3- Certkiller 4- Certkiller 5 because it has a lower metric.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
In BGP, the lowest MED metric is preferred over a higher metric. By default, the value of the metric is 0, so
for AS 200, the path via Certkiller 5 will have a metric of 0, and the path via Certkiller 1 will have a metric of
150, so the path from Certkiller 5 will be preferred.

QUESTION 34
Which BGP path attribute is Cisco proprietary?
A. weight
B. MED
C. local preference
D. origin
E. next-hop
F. AS-path
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The WEIGHT attribute is a Cisco proprietary feature used to measure a route’s preference. The WEIGHT inbound route maps. Use the WEIGHT attribute to influence routes from multiple service providers to a central location. Like LOCAL_PREF, assigning a higher weight to a route makes that route more preferred. The WEIGHT attribute also has the highest precedence of any BGP attribute. Reference: CCIE Practical Studies: Configuring Route-Maps and Policy-based Routing, Karl Solie, Cisco Press.

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QUESTION 40
Your OSPF router has one serial interface, and one Ethernet LAN interface. The subinterface is configured in the following manner: interface serial 0.122 point-to-point ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay interface-dlci 122 Your want to allow hosts on your LAN to send and receive data, but you don’t want routing traffic to go through that interface. Which of the following commands should you use to complete your configuration?
A. interface serial 0.122 point-to-point passive-interface ethernet 0
B. interface ethernet 0 ip address 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.0 passive-interface
C. router ospf 172 area 1 nssa network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 192.168.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
D. router ospf 172 passive-interface ethernet 0 network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network
192.168.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 1

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
We use the passive-interface command to configure the ethernet interface to be passive. The passive-
interface router configuration command is used to disable sending routing updates on an interface.
Incorrect Answers:

A: We are not configuring the serial interface. Furthermore, the passive-interface command is a router configuration command, not an interface configuration command.
B: We cannot use the passive-interface command like this.
C: We should configure the Ethernet interface as passive, not the area as a not-so-stubby area (NSSA).
QUESTION 41
You have a named Router CertK running EIGRP that has already been configured with the following: Router CertK (config)#access-list 30 deny any Router CertK (config)#access-list 40 permit ip any Router CertK (config)#router eigrp 1 To complete your configuration you want to configure the serial 0/0 interface to prevent routing updates from going out that interface while still allowing the formation and upkeep of neighbor adjacencies on that interface. Drag the correct command phrase from the bottom and place it in

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
We use distribute list 30, which stops IP traffic, on outward traffic on the serial 0/0 interface.
RouterTK continues receiving routing updates from its neighbor, but the distribute-list prevents routes from
being advertised out of serial 0. Furthermore, neighbor adjacencies are allowed to be formed between
RouterTK and its neighbor on serial 0/0.
Incorrect Answers:
passive interface serial 0/0:

On EIGRP, passive interface causes the router to stop sending and receiving hello packets. This will
prevent the interface from maintaining neighbor adjacencies.
distribute-list 40 out serial 0/0:
We must stop outgoing traffic, not allow it.
distribute-list 30 in serial 0-0:
We must stop outgoing traffic, not incoming traffic.
Reference: How Does the Passive Interface Feature Work in EIGRP?
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/16.html

QUESTION 42
he Certkiller network is displayed below:
You need to configure a static route so that users on the corporate network can reach the 172.27.6.0/24
LAN. Based on the diagram above, which of the following is the correct way to do this?

A. Certkiller 1(config)#ip route 172.27.6.0 255.255.255.0 172.17.8.2
B. Certkiller 2(config)#ip route 172.27.6.0 255.255.0.0 172.17.8.2
C. Certkiller 2(config)#ip route 172.27.6.0 255.255.255.0 172.17.8.2
D. Certkiller 1(config)#ip route 172.27.6.0 255.255.0.0 172.17.8.1
E. Certkiller 2(config)#ip route 172.27.6.0 255.255.255.0 172.17.8.1

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Only choice E provides the correct network subnet mask and next hop IP address.
IP route prefix mask {address|Interface} [distance] [tag tag] [permanent]
Prefix 172.27.6.0 mask 255.255.255.0 address 172.17.8.2
Address – The IP address of the next hop router that can be used to reach that network.
Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 464

QUESTION 43
The Certkiller network consists of a main office and a single remote office. You need to configure the
remote office in using the following guidelines:
The main office must learn all of its routes from the regional office.
The regional office must not learn routes from the main office.
The most scalable solution should be used.
Which of the following answer choices best describe what should be done to satisfy these
requirements?

A. Configure static routes pointing to the network behind the central office router
B. Configure a default route pointing to the networks behind the central office router
C. Make the interface that is connected to the central office a passive interface to block incoming updates
D. Enable route update filtering on the interface that is connected to the central office to block incoming updates
E. None of the above will work

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The only viable solution here is to enable the main office to dynamically learn about all of the regional
office routes, while still not receiving any routes is by enabling incoming route filters.

Incorrect Answers:
A, B: Configuring static routes or default routes on the regional office will not enable the main office to
learn about any of the regional office routes.

C: A passive interface would prevent all route updates to the main office. Passive interfaces do not filter incoming routing updates, so the regional office could still learn routes from the main office. Note: Configuring the main office using a passive interface would satisfy the conditions here, but this Qasks us how to configure the regional office, not the main office.
QUESTION 44
You wish to permit all BGP prefixes between /10 and /18 for the 207.0.0.0 network. How should a BGP prefix list be configured to do this?
A. ip prefix-list 207.0.0.0/8 ge 10 le 18
B. ip prefix-list 207.0.0.0/8 ge 18 le 10
C. ip prefix-list 207.0.0.0/24 ge 10 le 18
D. ip prefix-list 207.0.0.0/24 ge 18 le 10
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: With prefix lists, the “ge” means “greater than or equal to” while the le means “less than or equal to.” Here, we want to specify all prefixes greater than or equal to 10 and less than or equal to 18 as specified in choice
A. In addition, we must specify an 8 bit network mask, not a 24 bit network mask.
QUESTION 45
Routers CK1 and CK2 are configured for BGP as shown below: RTR CK1 router bgp 200 neighbor
183.215.22.1 remote-as 200 neighbor 183.215.22.1 update-source loopback 1 RTR CK2 router bgp 200 neighbor 147.229.1.1 remote-as 200 These two routers currently have an active BGP peering session between them and they are able to pass routes to each other. Based on these configuration files, which of the following are true? (Select three)
A. RTR CK1 and RTR CK2 are running IBGP inside AS 200
B. The IP address of RTR CK1 ‘s Loopback 1 interface is 147.229.1.1.
C. The IP address of RTR CK1 ‘s Loopback 1 interface is 183.215.22.1.
D. RTR CK1 and RTR CK2 are running EBGP between the autonomous systems.
E. RTR CK1 has forced BGP to use the loopback IP address as the source in the TCP neighbor connection.

Correct Answer: ABE Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
A: The two statements that define a remote AS (autonomous) use the same AS number. Both routers must belong to the same AS and there IBGP is used.
B: The IP address of the CK1 loopback address is 147.229.1.1 as specified in the neighbor statement of the CK2 router: neighbor 147.229.1.1 remote-as 200
E: The “neighbor 183.215.22.1 update-source loopback 1” command issued at CK1 makes CK1 use this loopback for the BGP connection to CK2 . See Note 2 below. Note 1: Syntax of neighbor command: Router(config-router)#neighbor {ip-address | peer-group-name} remote-as as-number This command specifies a BGP neighbor. Note 2: For iBGP, you might want to allow your BGP connections to stay up regardless of which interface is used to reach a neighbor. To enable this configuration, you first configure a loopback interface and assign it an IP address (neighbor 183.215.22.1 update-source loopback 1). Next, configure the BGP update source to be the loopback interface (we have to assume this step – it is not indicated by the exhibit). Finally, configure your neighbor to use the address on the loopback interface (neighbor 147.229.1.1 remote-as 200). Incorrect Answers:
C: 183.215.22.1 is the IP address of CK2 , not CK1 .
D: There is only one AS and the routers belong to that AS. Within an AS IBGP is used, not EBGP.
QUESTION 46
The Certkiller BGP router is configured as shown below: router bgp 64000 neighbor 172.16.1.1 remote-as 64000 neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 64550 network 200.52.1.192 mask 255.255.255.224 no synchronization aggregate-address 200.52.1.0 255.255.255.0 The BGP peers 172.16.1.1 and 10.1.1.2 in the above configuration are active, as well as the interface with IP address 200.52.1.192. Based on this information, which statement below is true about your configuration?
A. Router CertK has an IBGP connection with neighbor 10.1.1.2.
B. Router CertK has an EBGP connection with the neighbor 172.16.1.1.
C. Router CertK advertises only a route 200.52.1.0 255.255.255.0 in BGP.
D. Router CertK advertises only a route 200.52.1.192 255.255.255.224 in BGP.
E. Router CertK advertises both the routes to 200.52.1.0 255.255.255.0 and 200.52.1.192
255.255.255.224 in BGP.

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The aggregate route, 200.52.1.0 255.255.255.0, and the more specific route, 200.52.1.192
255.255.255.224, will both be advertised. To only advertise the aggregate route the summaryonly option of
the aggregate-address command must be used.
Note: The aggregate-address command is used to create an aggregate, or summary, entry in the BGP
table.
Incorrect Answers:

A: The neighbor 10.1.1.2 belongs to another autonomous system and is a EBGP neighbor, not an IBGP
neighbor.

B: Router A and neighbor 172.16.1.1 belong to the same autonomous system and is an IBGP neighbor,
not an EBGP neighbor.

C: The summary-only option of the aggregate-address command is used to only advertise the summary
and not the specific routes.

D:
The aggregate route, 200.52.1.0 255.255.255.0, will be advertised as well.
Q304 The Certkiller network consists of two separate autonomous systems as shown below:
You need to configure Router CK2 as a BGP route reflector and Router CK1 as the client. Assuming that
Router CK3 isn’t running BGP, which two of the commands below would you enter on CK2 to satisfy your
goals? (Select two)
A.
neighbor 165.50.12.1 remote-as 65100
B.
neighbor 165.50.12.2 remote-as 64000
C.
neighbor 165.50.12.1 route-reflector-client
D.
neighbor 165.50.12.2 route reflector-client
Answer: B, D
Explanation:

B: Router CK2 (config-router)# neighbor 165.50.12.2 remote-as 64000 We configure router CK1
(165.50.12.2) as a neighbor in AS 64000.
D: Router CK2 (config-router)# neighbor 165.50.12.2 route-reflector-client Configures the router CK2 as a BGP route reflector and configures the specified neighbor CK1 (165.50.12.2) as its client. Incorrect Answers:
A: We must specify router CK1 as neighbor, not CK2 itself (165.50.12.1). Furthermore, we should use the local AS (64000), not the remote AS 65100.
C: We must specify router CK1 as route reflector client, not CK2 itself (165.50.12.1).
QUESTION 47
The Certkiller network consists of a series of routers that are all configured for IBGP. Which one of the following IBGP characteristics is true?
A. The IBGP routers must always be fully meshed.
B. The IBGP routers can be in a different AS.
C. The IBGP routers must be directly connected.
D. The IBGP routers do not need to be directly connected.
E. None of the above are true.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The IBGP routers do not have to be directly connected. The remote IBGP peers need only be reachable via a TCP connection. For example, if the network is also running an interior routing protocol such as EIGRP or OSPF, the remote IBGP router could be many hops away, as long as it is reachable via the IGP that is being used. Incorrect Answers:
A: Using route reflectors or confederations a full mesh topology is not necessary.
B: The IBGP routers must be placed in the same AS. Peers that are in different autonomous systems are using EBGP, not IBGP.
C: The IBGP routers do not have to be directly connected.
QUESTION 48
Which of the following statements regarding BGP peer groups are true? (Select two)
A. Peer members inherit all options of the peer group.
B. Peer groups can be used to simplify BGP configurations.
C. Peer groups are optional non-transitive attributes for BGP.
D. A peer group allows options that affect outbound updates to be overridden.
E. A common name should be used on all routers because this information is passed between neighbors.

Correct Answer: AB Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
A BGP peer group is a group of BGP neighbors with the same update policies.

A: By default members of the peer group inherit all of the configuration options of the peer group. Note: Members can also be configured to override these options
B: Peer groups are normally used to simplify router configurations when many neighbors have the same policy.
Note: BGP neighbors who share the same outbound policies can be grouped together in what is called a BGP peer group. Instead of configuring each neighbor with the same policy individually, Peer group allows to group the policies which can be applied to individual peer thus making efficient update calculation along with simplified configuration.
Incorrect Answers:
C: The only Optional non-transitive attribute in BGP is MED.
D: Does not apply.
E: Using a common router name provides no BGP benefits at all.
Reference: BGP Peer Groups, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/459/29.html

QUESTION 49
A BGP router is configured as shown below: interface ethernet 0 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.0.0 ! int serial 0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 ! router bgp 65001 neighbor 192.168.1.1 remote-as 65002 Based on the above configuration, which of the following BGP statements would inject the 10.10.0.0/16 prefix into the BGP routing table?
A. network 10.0.0.0
B. network 10.10.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0
C. network 10.10.10.1 mask 255.255.255.255
D. network 10.10.10.0 mask 255.255.255.0
E. network 10.0.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The /16 mask is equal to 255.255.0.0, so answer choice B matches the address and the mask. To specify the route as classless, the mask keyword should be included or the network will be summarized at the network boundary.
QUESTION 50
Why would a systems administrator enter in the network command when configuring BGP?
A. Local routes matching the network command are filtered from the BGP routing table.
B. Local routes matching the network command can be installed into the BGP routing table.
C. Routes matching the network command will be filtered from BGP routing updates.
D. External routes matching the network command will be installed into the BGP routing table.
E. None of the above.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Use the network router configuration command to permit BGP to advertise a network if it is
present in the IP routing table.
Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 342

QUESTION 51
The Certkiller network is depicted in the following diagram: Which of the following command sets would you use if you want Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 to exchange BGP routing information? (Select two)

A. Certkiller 2(config)#router bgp 200 Certkiller 2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 remote-as 100
B. Certkiller 1(config)#router bgp 100 Certkiller 1(config-router)#exit Certkiller 1(config)#interface S0
Certkiller 1(config-if)#neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 200
C. Certkiller 1(config)#router bgp 100 Certkiller 1(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 200
D. Certkiller 2(config)#router bgp 100 Certkiller 2(config-router)exit Certkiller 2(config)#interface S0
Certkiller 2(config-if)#neighbor remote-as 100
E. Certkiller 1(config)#router bgp 100 Certkiller 1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 Certkiller 1(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.2 remote-as 100
F. Certkiller 2(config)#router bgp 200 Certkiller 2(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 Certkiller 2(config-router)#network 10.1.1.1 remote-as 200

Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Choices A and C give the correct syntax for configuring EBGP peering sessions.
Incorrect Answers:
B, D: The BGP peering configurations are placed under the BGP routing process, not in
interface configuration mode.
E, F: The network 10.0.0.0 command is not required here, since this is an EBGP peering session using the
directly connected interface. Since each neighbor shares the 10.0.0.0 network they each already know
how to reach this network.

QUESTION 52
Router TK-1 is configured for BGP routing as shown below: router bgp 65300 network 27.0.0.0 neighbor
192.23.1.1 remote-as 65300 From the perspective of router TK-1, what kind of router is the router with IP address 192.23.1.1?
A. A peer router running IBGP
B. A peer router running EBGP
C. A community member running IBGP
D. A peer group member running IBGP E. A peer group member running EBGP

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Both the local and remote router is configured with the same autonomous system number so they are peer
routers running IBGP.

QUESTION 53
When you’re configuring BGP on a Cisco router, what is true of the command “network”?
A. Local routes matching the network command are filtered from the BGP routing table.
B. Local routes matching the network command can be installed into the BGP routing table.
C. Sending and receiving BGP updates is controlled by using a number of different filtering methods.
D. The route to a neighbor autonomous system must have the correct MED applied to be installed into BGP routing table.
E. None of the above.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The network command allows BGP to advertise an IGP route if it is already in the IP table. A matching route must exist in the routing table before the network is announced. The network command is used to permit BGP to advertise a network if it is present in the IP routing table.
QUESTION 54
Router CK1 needs to be configured to advertise a specific network. Which of the following commands would you use if you wanted to advertise the subnet 154.2.1.0 255.255.255.0 to the EBGP neighbors on your subnet?
A. Router (config-router)#network 154.2.1.0
B. Router (config-router)#network 164.2.1.0
C. Router (config-router)#network-advertise 154.2.1.0
D. Router (config-router)#network 154.2.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The network command is used to specify the networks to be advertised by the Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP) and multiprotocol BGP routing processes.
Syntax: network network-number [mask network-mask] [route-map map-name]
Mask and route-map are optional. If the mask keyword is configured, then an exact match must exist in the
routing table.
Incorrect Answers:

A: If we do not specify the subnet mask then additional networks are allowed to be advertised. The classful subnet mask of 154.2.1.0 is 255.255.0.0 – a Class B network.
B: This is using the incorrect IP address, as well as a missing subnet mask.
C: The network-advertise is an invalid command.
QUESTION 55
You are the administrator of a company with BGP connections to multiple ISP’s. How could you configure BGP to make it favor one particular ISP for outbound traffic?
A. Configure weight
B. Enable route reflector
C. Create a distribute list
D. Enable the Longer Autonomous System path option.
E. All of the above.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: If the router learns about more than one route to the same destination, the route with the highest weight will be preferred. Weight is a Cisco BGP parameter that is local to the router. When terminating multiple ISP connections into the same router, weight can be used to affect which path is chosen for outbound traffic. Incorrect Answers:
B: A route reflector cannot be used to influence outbound traffic. A route reflector modifies the BGP split horizon rule by allowing the router configured as the route reflector to propagate routes learned by IBGP to other IBGP peers. This saves on the number of BGP TCP sessions that must be maintained, and also reduces the BGP routing traffic.
C: Distribute lists restrict the routing information that the router learns or advertises. By itself a distribute list cannot make routes from one ISP be preferred to routers from another ISP.
D: This choice describes ASD path pre-pending, which would be used to influence the path that incoming traffic takes, not outgoing.
QUESTION 56
What are two solutions to overcome the full mesh requirement with iBGP? (Choose two)
A. BGP groups
B. BGP local preference
C. Route reflector
D. Confederation
E. Aggregate-address

Correct Answer: CD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In general, all IBGP peers must be configured to be fully meshed. If they are not, then all of the IBGP routers will not have the updated information from the external BGP routers. There are two ways to overcome the scalability issues of a full IBGP mesh: route reflectors and confederations. With route reflectors, internal BGP routers peer only with the route reflector. With confederations, the AS is broken up into smaller, more manageable sub autonomous systems.
QUESTION 57
An ISP is running a large IBPG network with 25 routers. The full mesh topology that is currently in place is inefficiently using up bandwidth from all of the BGP traffic. What can the administrator configure to reduce the number of BGP neighbor relationships within the AS?
A. Route reflectors
B. Route maps
C. Route redistribution
D. Peer groups
E. Aggregate addresses
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation

Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In general, all IBGP peers must be configured to be fully meshed. If they are not, then all of the IBGP routers will not have the updated information from the external BGP routers. There are two ways to overcome the scalability issues of a full IBGP mesh: route reflectors and confederations. With route reflectors, internal BGP routers peer only with the route reflector, and then the route reflectors connect with each other. This can considerably reduce the number of IBGP sessions. Another solution to the scalability problem of IBGP is the use of confederations. With confederations, the AS is broken up into smaller, more manageable sub autonomous systems.
QUESTION 58
Arrange the BGP attributes on the left in order or priority.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

Explanation:
How the Best Path Algorithm Works:
BGP assigns the first valid path as the current best path. It then compares the best path with the next path
in list, until it reaches the end of the list of valid paths. The following is a list of rules used to determine the
best path.

1.
Prefer the path with the highest WEIGHT. Note: WEIGHT is a Cisco-specific parameter, local to the router on which it’s configured.

2.
Prefer the path with the highest LOCAL_PREF. Note the following:

Path without LOCAL_PREF is considered as having the value set with the bgp default local-preference command, or 100 by default.

3.
Prefer the path that was locally originated via a network or aggregate BGP subcommand, or through redistribution from an IGP. Local paths sourced by network or redistribute commands are preferred over local aggregates sourced by the aggregate-address command.

4.
Prefer the path with the shortest AS_PATH. Note the following:

The AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE and AS_CONFED_SET are not included in the AS_PATH length.

5.
Prefer the path with the lowest origin type: IGP is lower than EGP, and EGP is lower than INCOMPLETE.

6.
Prefer the path with the lowest multi-exit discriminator (MED). Note the following:
This comparison is only done if the first (neighboring) AS is the same in the two paths; any confederation sub-ASs are ignored. In other words, MEDs are compared only if the first AS in the AS_SEQUENCE is the same for multiple paths. Any preceding AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE is ignored. If bgp always-compare-med is enabled, MEDs are compared for all paths. This option needs to be enabled over the entire AS, otherwise routing loops can occur.
If bgp bestpath med-confed is enabled, MEDs are compared for all paths that consist only of AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE (paths originated within the local confederation).
Paths received from a neighbor with a MED of 4,294,967,295 will have the MED changed to 4,294,967,294 before insertion into the BGP table.
Paths received with no MED are assigned a MED of 0, unless bgp bestpath missing-as-worst is enabled, in which case they are assigned a MED of 4,294,967,294.
The bgp deterministic med command can also influence this step as demonstrated in the How BGP Routers Use the Multi-Exit Discriminator for Best Path Selection.
7.
Prefer external (eBGP) over internal (iBGP) paths. If bestpath is selected, go to Step 9 (multipath).

Note: Paths containing AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE and AS_CONFED_SET are local to the confederation,
and therefore treated as internal paths. There is no distinction between
Confederation External and Confederation Internal.
8.
Prefer the path with the lowest IGP metric to the BGP next hop. Continue, even if
bestpath is already selected.
9.
Check if multiple paths need to be installed in the routing table for BGP Multipath.
Continue, if bestpath is not selected yet.
10.
When both paths are external, prefer the path that was received first (the oldest one). This step
minimizes route-flap, since a newer path will not displace an older one, even if it
would be the preferred route based on the next decision criteria (Steps 11, 12, and 13).
Skip this step if any of the following is true:

o The bgp best path compare-routerid command is enabled.
Note: This command was introduced in Cisco IOS(r) Software Releases 12.0.11S, 12.0.11SC,
12.0.11S3, 12.1.3, 12.1.3AA, 12.1.3.T, and 12.1.3.E.

o The router ID is the same for multiple paths, since the routes were received from the same router.

o There is no current best path. An example of losing the current best path occurs when the neighbor offering the path goes down.
11.
Prefer the route coming from the BGP router with the lowest router ID. The router ID is the highest IP address on the router, with preference given to loopback addresses. It can also be set manually using the bgp router-id command. Note: If a path contains route-reflector (RR) attributes, the originator ID is substituted for the router ID in the path selection process.

12.
If the originator or router ID is the same for multiple paths, prefer the path with the minimum cluster list length. This will only be present in BGP route-reflector environments. It allows clients to peer with RRs or clients in other clusters. In this scenario, the client must be aware of the RR-specific BGP attribute.

13.
Prefer the path coming from the lowest neighbor address. This is the IP address used in the BGP neighbor configuration, and corresponds to the remote peer used in the TCP connection with the local router.
QUESTION 59
The Certkiller BGP routing table consists of the following network routes:

What is the correct command to summarize these prefixes into a single summary prefix of 192.168.12.0/22 while also allowing for the advertisement of the more specific prefixes?
A. network 192.168.12.0 mask 255.255.252.0
B. network 192.168.12.0 mask 0.0.3.255
C. network 192.168.12.0
D. aggregate-address 192.168.12.0 255.255.252.0
E. aggregate-address 192.168.12.0 255.255.252.0 summary-only
F. aggregate-address 192.168.12.0 255.255.252.0 as-set

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
To summarize BGP prefixes into one aggregated route, use the “aggregate-address” command.
When used alone, this will advertise the aggregate route, along with the individual specific
routing entries. To advertise only the aggregated route, use the “summary-only” keyword, as specified in
choice E.

QUESTION 60
The Certkiller BGP network is displayed below: Certkiller 3 is the hub router and Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are the spokes. There are no virtual circuits between the spoke locations. Each router is in a separate AS. What is needed to successfully route traffic to the 11.11.11.0/24 network from Certkiller 1?

A. The neighbor 10.10.10.1 next-hop-self command on Certkiller 1.
B. The neighbor 10.10.10.1 next-hop-self command on Certkiller 2.
C. The neighbor 10.10.10.1 next-hop-self command on Certkiller 3.
D. Nothing is required. This is the default behavior on this topology

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The following example illustrates the issue:
BGP Next Hop (NBMA)
If the common media as you see in the shaded area above is a frame relay or any NBMA cloud then the exact behavior will occur as if we were connected via Ethernet. RTC will advertise 180.20.0.0 to RTA with a next hop of 170.10.20.3. The problem is that RTA does not have a direct PVC to RTD, and cannot reach the next hop. In this case routing will fail. In order to remedy this situation a command called next-hop-self is created. The next-hop-self Command Because of certain situations with the next hop as we saw in the previous example, a command called next-hop-self is created. The syntax is: neighbor {ip-address|peer-group-name} next-hop-self The next-hop-self command allows us to force BGP to use a specified IP address as the next hop rather than letting the protocol choose the next hop. In the previous example, the following configuration solves our problem: RTC# router bgp 300 neighbor 170.10.20.1 remote-as 100 neighbor 170.10.20.1 next-hop-self RTC advertises 180.20.0.0 with a next hop = 170.10.20.2 Reference: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/459/bgp-toc.html#bgpnexthop
QUESTION 61
Exhibit Based on the show ip bgp summary output in the exhibit, which two statements are true? Select two?

A. The BGP session to the 10.1.1.1 neighbor is established.
B. The BGP session to the 10.2.2.2 neighbor is established.
C. The BGP session to the 10.3.3.3 neighbor is established.
D. The router is attempting is attempting to establish a BGP peering to the 10.1.1.1 neighbor.
E. The BGP session to the 10.3.3.3 neighbor is established, but the router has not received any BGP routing updates from the 10.3.3.3 neighbor.
F. The router is attempting to establish BGP peering with the 10.2.2.2 neighbor.

Correct Answer: AFCEBD Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 62
we want to hide some of your internal IP subnets from outside networks. By what means can you conceal the details of your IP addressing scheme to the outside world?
A. Subnetting
B. Supernetting
C. Challenge Handshake Protocol
D. Usernames and passwords

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In large internetworks, hundreds or even thousands of networks can exist. In these environments, it is often not desirable for routers to maintain all these routes in their routing table. Route summarization (also called route aggregation or supernetting) can reduce the number of routes that a router must maintain because is it a method of representing a series of network numbers in a single summary address. By advertising only one large supernet to the outise world, the details of your IP network scheme can remain hidden.
QUESTION 63
The Certkiller network will be using a new ISP for their Internet connection. The new Internet provider will be allocating a new registered class C IP address subnet to use. In order to not have to change out the entire internal IP addressing scheme on your network, you plan to use NAT to translate all of the internal IP address to the new IP addresses that are being assigned to Certkiller . You have been assigned the task of making changes so that the following requirements are met: Maintain the current IP addressing scheme Configure Certkiller ‘s router for network address translation (NAT) so all the internal computers use the same external IP address Configure a static translation so Certkiller employees can access their email from the internet. Privileged mode password: Certkiller The IP Addresses are shown below: Name: Certkiller NAT SO 192.168.15.1/24 E0 10.100.5.1/24 E-mail Server’s External Address 192.168.15.5/24 E-mail Server’s Internal Address 10.100.5.5/24 To configure the router click on a host icon that is connected to a router by a serial console cable.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Certkiller NAT(config-if)#exit Certkiller NAT(config)#exit Certkiller NAT#copy run start Q322

You have been assigned the task of configuring the routers to meet the following requirements:
In the unlikely event that a link goes down, you have to ensure a backup link exists
The proper metrics must be distributed through the IGRP portion of the network Based on this information,
which of the following should you do? (Select two)

A. Apply the distance command to Main
B. Apply the distance command to CK2
C. Apply the distribute-list command to Main
D. Apply the distribute-list command to CK2
Answer: B, C Explanation:
B: Most routing protocols, including IGRP and RIP, use the distance command to modify the administrative distance. We need to change the metric of the RIP routes learned by CK2 .
C: To control the advertising and processing of routes in routing updates the distribute-list
command is used.
Incorrect Answers:

A: We change the administrative distance of RIP routes on CK2 .

D: We should apply the distribute-list command to Main, not to CK2 .

QUESTION 64
Network topology exhibit

Certkiller .com is changing ISPs. As a result, they will need to install an Email server and utilize network address translation (NAT) for the internal network. Certkiller .com does not want to change the IP Addresses on all of the internal routers and servers. The new ISP, Foo Services, will allocate a registered class C address for Certkiller to use. The internal IP Address scheme will remain the same. Configure the router to provide NAT so that all internal Certkiller PCs will use the single external IP Address assigned to the router interface. Configure a static translation so that Certkiller .com’s Email server will be accessible from the Internet. Name: Certkiller NAT S0: 192.168.17.1/24 E0: 10.0.216.1/24 Secret Password: Certkiller
A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
192.168.212.5/24 Web Server’s Internal Address 10.0.243.5/24
QUESTION 65
One of the virtues of a Link-State routing protocol is its hierarchical design. What advantages does this equate to in network design? (Select two)
A. It allows link-state protocols to support VLSM.
B. It allows them to support address summarization.
C. It reduces the need to flood LSAs to all devices in the internetwork.
D. Routers are no longer required to keep track of the topology of the entire autonomous system.

Correct Answer: CD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Hierarchical design can limit the requirement to notify all devices. The use of areas restricts the flooding to the logical boundary of the area rather than to all devices in the OSPF domain. Another advantage of hierarchical network design is that the entire network is divided into multiple smaller sections, so that much of the routing information is kept within a small area. In a non-hierarchical network, each router is required to maintain routing information for all other routers within the entire network. Incorrect Answers:
A: Although link state protocols do indeed support VLSM, it is not due to a hierarchical network design. For example, RIP version 2 supports VLSM, but it is not hierarchical.
B: Although address summarization can indeed be configured on routers configured in a hierarchical design, it is an independent function and is not related to the fact that a tiered network design is being used.
QUESTION 66
In regards to the three layered hierarchical network design, which of the following are responsibilities of the distribution layer? (Choose 2)
A. Reliable transport structure
B. Route redistribution
C. Optimized transport structure
D. Address aggregation
E. Unauthorized entry access control lists

Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The distribution layer is responsible for what enters and exits a network, including the
consolidation of traffic from multiple subnets into a core connection. Route redistribution and address
aggregation happen at this layer.
Incorrect Answers:
A, C: This is a function of the core layer.

E. This is a function of the access layer.
QUESTION 67
Which of the following are advantages of implementing a hierarchical IP addressing scheme when designing a large network? (Select two)
A. Smaller routing tables
B. Efficient address allocation
C. Translation of private addresses
D. Support for link-state routing protocols

Correct Answer: AB Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Hierarchical IP addressing uses the addresses more conservatively, by planning for the correct use of subnet masks and route summarization. A hierarchical network design facilitates the use of IP routing summarization, which will reduce the size of the routing tables.
QUESTION 68
The Certkiller frame relay network is shown in the diagram below: Based on the information given in this diagram, which of the following are true??

A. The network is using a two-layer full-mesh hierarchical design.
B. The network is using a two-layer hub-and-spoke hierarchical design.
C. To improve scalability, route summarization at Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , CK5 , and CK6 should be performed.
D. Routers A and B are the distribution layer routers.
E. Routers CK1 , CK2 , CK3 , CK4 , CK5 and CK6 are the access layer routers.
F. To improve security, packet filtering that uses ACLs at Routers A and B must be implemented.

Correct Answer: CEADB Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
A: The network shown here is using a 3 level tiered approach: Core, Distribution, and Access.
B: Three layers are used, not two.
D: Routers A and B are the Core routers here.
E: These routers make up the Distribution layer.
QUESTION 69
You are trying to determine the best routing protocol to use for the large Certkiller network. Which routing protocols should you avoid when deploying a large network? (Select two)
A. IGRP
B. OSPF
C. EIGRP
D. RIP v.2
E. RIP v.1

Correct Answer: DE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Both RIP version 1 and version 2 should only be used in relatively small networks. A large network would be congested by RIP broadcasts. These frequent broadcasts contain the entire routing table, and could saturate links.
QUESTION 70
What are some of the features that are important for designing large, scalable networks? (Select three)
A. A tiered network design model.
B. Sufficient memory on the router.
C. Multiple EIGRP autonomous systems.
D. Good address space allocation scheme.

Correct Answer: ABD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
A: A tiered network design model such as Core, Distribution, and Access is also needed for
large networks.

B: Sufficient capacity of the routers, in particular the memory, is required for large networks.

D: Good allocation of address space is required- Each region should have a unique address
space so route summarization is possible.
Incorrect Answers:

C: Configuring multiple EIGRP autonomous systems can add extra overhead and it provides no
additional benefits.

QUESTION 71
Two of the following routing protocols require a tiered, hierarchical topology. Which ones are they? (Select two)
A. IS-IS
B. IGRP
C. OSPF
D. EIGRP
E. RIP v2

Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
IS-IS and OSPF both require a hierarchical topology. The use of multiple areas and a core
backbone area means that they are hierarchical by nature.

QUESTION 72
What has become the leading Interior Routing Protocol (IGP) in use by Internet service providers?
A. IS-IS
B. OSPF
C. EIGRP
D. RIPv2
E. BGP4

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In recent years, the IS-IS routing protocol has become increasingly popular, with widespread use among Service Providers. It is a link state protocol, which enables very fast convergence with large scalability. It is also a very flexible protocol and has been extended to incorporate leading edge features such as MPLS Traffic Engineering. It is also chosen because it is an IETF standard based protocol, rather than a proprietary protocol such as IGRP or EIGRP. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK3 81/technologies_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f.sht ml
QUESTION 73
Two of the following routing protocols support load balancing over unequal cost links.Which ones are they? (Select two)
A. IGRP
B. OSPF
C. EIGRP
D. RIP v2
E. RIP v1

Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
IGRP and EIGRP support unequal cost path load balancing, which is known as variance. OSPF,
RIP v1 and RIP v2 do not support this.
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/19.html

QUESTION 74
You are required to choose a routing protocol that supports variable length subnet masks (VLSM) for your network. Which of the following would meet this requirement? (Choose three)
A. IS-IS
B. IGRP
C. OSPF
D. EIGRP
E. RIP v1

Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
IS-IS, EIGRP, OSPF, RIP V2 and static routes all support VLSM.
Incorrect Answers:

B: IGRP is the predecessor to EIGRP and does not support VLSM.
E: RIP version 1 is a distance vector routing protocol that does not support VLSM.
QUESTION 75
Cisco routers automatically perform route summarization for various protocols. Which three of the following routing protocols are they? (Select three)
A. IS-IS
B. IGRP
C. OSPF
D. EIGRP
E. RIP v.1

Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Sending route summaries – Routing information advertised out an interface is automatically summarized at

major (classful) network address boundaries by RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP. Specifically, this autonomous summarization occurs for those routes whose classful network address differs from the major network address of the interface to which the advertisement is being sent. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 79

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Exam A
QUESTION 1
Which configuration command is used to enable EIGRP unequal-cost path load balancing?
A. maximum-paths
B. distance
C. metric
D. variance
E. default-metric

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: EIGRP automatically load balances across links of equal cost. Whether the traffic is sent on a predestination or round-robin basis depends on the internal switching within the router. It is possible to configure EIGRP to load balance across unequal-cost paths using the variance command. The variance command allows the administrator to identify the metric scope for including additional paths by the use of a multiplier parameter. The command structure follows: Router(config-router)#variance multiplier The multiplier argument is the metric value used for load balancing. It can be a value from 1 to 128. The default is 1, which means equal-cost load balancing. Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam certification guide p.485
QUESTION 2

Examine the EIGRP network diagram. All paths should be used for load balancing between Certkiller 4 and the Certkiller Corporate Network. Which value should be assigned to the variance command to accomplish this?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 2.5
D. 3
E. 5
F. 6

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. In addition to that, IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination, where n is the number specified by the variance command. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128, with the default being 1, which means equal cost load balancing. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs, proportionately, with respect to the metric. In this example, the worst route is 2.5 times worse than the best route. Since we can not use 2.5 for the variance (the value must be an integer) we must specify a minimum value of 3.

Assuming that the OSPF router ID was not explicitly defined on router CK2 , what would its router ID default to?
A. 10.5.0.2
B. 10.7.0.3
C. 10.9.0.1
D. 10.10.10.10
E. 0.0.0.0
F. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: The router ID is the tie-breaker for OSPF path selection. The path selection process uses a variety of metrics to select a route. If all other metrics (accessibility, administrative weight, local preference, etc.) are equal, OSPF determines the router ID using the following priority: Use the address configured by the ospf router-id command Use the address of the loopback 0 interface Use the highest IP address of any interface If no interface exists, set the router-ID to 0.0.0.0

QUESTION 3
Which of the following commands ensures that permanently created static route entries are dynamically added into the routing process?
A. inject static
B. inject permanent
C. redistribute all
D. redistribute static

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: If you define a static route to an interface that is not one of the networks defined in a network command, no dynamic routing protocols will advertise the route unless a redistribute static command is specified for these protocols. Incorrect Answers:
A: The inject static is used to configure legacy DECnet systems. It is not a valid IP routing command.

B: There is no such command.

C: The command is not valid.
Reference: Cisco, Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features
QUESTION 4
The Berlin and Nuremberg OSPF networks need to be established and configured in the following manner: The router is named Berlin. The clocking is provided on the Berlin router’s serial 0/0 interface. The secret password in the Berlin router is ” Certkiller “. You should use OSPF in a single area Area 0 should be used for the routing protocol. Use 1 for the process ID of the routing protocol. The IP addresses and subnet masks are listed in the chart. Berlin FA0/0 10.60.2.1/23 S0/0 10.60.4.1/30 Lo 0 10.90.20.10/32 Nuremberg FA0/0 10.60.6.1/24 S0/0 10.60.4.2/30 Lo 0 10.90.20.20/32

Please provide the complete configuration and also the prompt where the configuration is to be done. Start by clicking on host that is connected to the router you want to configure. Lab A Berlin
FA0/0 10.60.2.1/23 S0/0 10.60.4.1/30 Lo 0 10.90.20.10/32 Secret Password: Certkiller Lab B Nuremberg FA0/0 10.60.6.1/24 S0/0 10.60.4.2/30 Lo 0 10.90.20.20/32
A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 5
Which command should you use to verify what networks are being routed by a given OSPF process?
A. show ip ospf
B. show ip route
C. show ip protocol
D. show ip ospf database

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The information displayed by the show ip protocols command is useful in debugging routing operations. Information in the Routing Information Sources field of the show ip protocols output can help you identify a router suspected of delivering bad routing information. For OSPF routers, this command will display the routed networks. Incorrect Answers:
A: To display general information about Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing processes, use the show ip ospf command in EXEC mode. This command will display the areas assigned and other useful information, but not the networks being routed. Example: CK1 # show ip ospf Routing Process “ospf 201” with ID 192.42.110.200 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router Redistributing External Routes from, igrp 200 with metric mapped to 2, includes subnets in redistribution rip with metric mapped to 2 igrp 2 with metric mapped to 100 igrp 32 with metric mapped to 1 Number of areas in this router is 3 Area 192.42.110.0 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has simple password authentication SPF algorithm executed 6 times
B: This will display the active routing table, but not the networks that are being routed.
D: The OSPF database does not display the networks being routed.

QUESTION 6
OSPF is being configured over the Certkiller frame relay network as displayed in the diagram below:

Which three of the following commands would you enter on the Certkiller 1 serial 0 interface, if you wanted to implement OSPF on this network? (Select three)
A. ip ospf network point-to-point
B. ip ospf network point-to-multipoint
C. frame-relay map ip 10.1.1.1 200
D. frame-relay map ip 10.1.1.3 300
E. frame-relay map ip 10.1.1.1 200 broadcast
F. frame-relay map ip 10.1.1.3 300 broadcast

Correct Answer: BEF Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The ip ospf network command, typed under the interface configuration mode, is used to specify the OSPF network configuration and sets the network mode to point-to-multipoint DLCI- Data-link connection identifier (DLCI) number. Broadcast – Forwards broadcasts to the specified IP address. This keyword is needed on the frame relay mappings in order to transmit the OSPF information across the frame relay network. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1830/products_feature_guide09186a00800 87b42.html

QUESTION 7
Router CK1 is configured as shown below: interface serial0 ip address 110.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network point-to-multipoint router ospf 51 network 110.1.1.0 0.0.0255 area 0 Based on the information above, which two of the following statements are true? (Select two)
A. DB/BDR elections do not take place.
B. The router is restricted to a hub and spoke topology.
C. The area 0 NBMA cloud is configured as more than one subnet.
D. OSPF neighbor statements are not necessary.
E. The OSPF hello timers need to be adjusted manually.

Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In an OSPF Point-to-Multipoint environment, DB/BDR elections do not take place. The neighbor command became somewhat obsolete with the introduction of the capability to configure other network modes for the interface, regardless of the underlying physical topology. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 130 and 181 Point-to-Multipoint Network: Point-to-multipoint is a single interface that connects to multiple destinations. The underlying network treats the network as a series of point-to-point circuits. It replicates LSA packets for each circuit. OSPF traffic is sent as multicast. There is no DR or BDR election. This technology uses one IP subnet for all endpoints on the network. By default, the network is considered to be a series of point-to-point interfaces. There is no need
to specify neighbors, because the neighbors will see each other and simply become adjacent, with no need for the election of a DR or a BDR. Point-to-multipoint does not try to reduce adjacencies using a DR. Instead, it accepts the extra overhead of having a full set of adjacencies for the sake of stability. Point-to-multipoint forms an adjacency automatically along any PVC, which causes more overhead but is more resilient than NBMA.

QUESTION 8
On the Certkiller NBMA Frame Relay network, subinterfaces were configured. In routing OSPF over the frame relay network, what advantage does using subinterfaces provide?
A. To converse IP addressing space.
B. To avoid split-horizon issues with the routing protocol.
C. Because logical interfaces are more reliable than physical interfaces.
D. Subinterfaces remain up when the physical interface changes to a down state.
E. All of the above.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: When configuring routers in a NBMA topology, subinterfaces are typically used. A physical interface can be split into multiple logical interfaces, called subinterfaces, with each subinterface being defined as point-to-multipoint interface. Subinterfaces originally were created to better handle issues caused by spilt horizon over NBMA and distance vector-based routing protocols. Incorrect Answers:
A: Using subinterfaces creates separate IP subnets for each frame relay link, so actually more IP addresses are used this way.
C: Using logical interfaces has no impact on the stability of any network link.
D: When the physical link goes down, all subinterfaces also go down. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 120.

QUESTION 9
You have been assigned the task of connecting two office networks together via a frame relay network, and running OSPF across this network. What kind of configuration structure would you use to accomplish this?
A. Point-to-point over sub-interfaces.
B. Point-to-multipoint star configuration.
C. Point-to-multipoint using a single subnet.
D. Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast using a single subnet.
E. None of the above.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Using point to point subinterfaces will eliminate the issues surrounding split horizons over

NBMA networks. Configuring the network in this way is the Cisco recommended solution. Reference:
RFC1586, Guidelines for Running OSPF over Frame Relay Network.

QUESTION 10
A Certkiller router is configured as shown below: interface serial 0 ip address 164.67.36.1
255.255.255.224 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network non-broadcast ! router ospf 1 network
164.67.36.0 0.0.0.31 area 0 neighbor 164.67.36.2 neighbor 164.67.36.3 Based on this configuration, which of the following statements are true? (Select two)
A. There can be no DR or BDR in this configuration.
B. This is a point-to-point configuration over Frame Relay.
C. The network mode is nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA).
D. The DR and BDR need a static list of neighbors due to non-broadcast.

Correct Answer: CD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The configuration printout shows an OSPF configuration across a frame relay network that is not configured for subinterfaces. With this setup you are required to specify neighbors so that a DR and BDR can be elected. In addition, all locations are part of the same IP subnet so the OSPF neighbors need to be explicitly assigned at the host location of an NBMA network. Note: Had subinterfaces been used, the network would be seen as a series of logical point to point links, so the OSPF neighbors would not need to be specified.
QUESTION 11
In a network running OSPF, what is the term used to describe the administrative process of dividing a large area into smaller areas?
A. interior areas
B. OSPF subarea
C. link-state protocol
D. hierarchical routing

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: OSPF’s ability to separate a large internetwork into multiple areas is referred to as hierarchical routing. The backbone area, area 0, is considered to be at the top of the hierarchical chain, with the other areas lying below it.
QUESTION 12
Assuming that you are configuring an ABR in an OSPF area, which IOS command would you execute if your goal was to summarize the networks advertised out of the area?
A. summary-address address mask
B. area area-id range address mask
C. auto-summary address mask area area-id
D. network network-number wildcard mask area area-id

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The area area-id range address mask command consolidates IA (intra-area) routes on an ABR. This
command instructs the ABR to summarize routes for a specific area before injecting them into a different
area.
Incorrect Answers:

A: The summary-address address mask command consolidates external routes (inter-area) on an ASBR
C: Auto-summarization is not useful here.
D: The network command cannot be used for this purpose. This command is simply used to add a network to the OSPF routing process.
QUESTION 13
Which two of the following characteristics are defined by the network command? (Select two)
A. The OSPF area ID
B. The OSPF router ID
C. The OSPF process ID
D. Which interface belongs to which OSPF area

Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The network command designates the OSPF area for an interface with the specified IP address.
Syntax: network address wildcard-mask area area-id

QUESTION 14
Router CK1 is configured for OSPF as shown below: router ospf 76 network 172.22.23.0 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 172.18.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 area 0 range 172.18.0.0 255.255.0.0 area 1 range 172.22.23.0
255.255.255.0 Which of the following statements are true regarding the above configuration? (Select three)
A. The OSPF router ID is 76.
B. This is an area border router.
C. The designated router priority is 76.
D. This router connects area 1 to the backbone area.
E. Any router interfaces with an address of 172.18.x.x are in area 0.

Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: An interface may belong to only one area. If a router has multiple interfaces and if
any of those interfaces belong to different areas, the router is considered as an area border router.
The networks that follow the network command are connected to each other and Area O is
always the backbone area. Finally, the command “network 172.18.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0”
identifies that all interfaces with IP address of 172.18.0.0 area within area 0.
Incorrect Answers:
A, C: The command router ospf 76 identifies the process ID as 76 and not the router ID nor the
router priority.

QUESTION 15
When configuring a multi-area OSPF network to summarize routes, what additional command is required by ASBR’s that is not needed by ABR’s?
A. area range command
B. ospf summarize command
C. aggregate-route command
D. summary-address command
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Using this command for OSPF causes an OSPF autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) to advertise one external route as an aggregate for all redistributed routes that are covered by the address. For OSPF, this command summarizes only routes from other routing protocols that are being redistributed into OSPF. Incorrect Answers:
A: The area range command is used only with area border routers (ABRs). It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. B, C: There are no such commands for OSPF. Reference: OSPF Commands
QUESTION 16
When designing OSPF networks, maintaining stability in an area is important. Which of the following describes a reason for this?
A. Instability causes more LSAs to be sent, requiring more CPU to recalculate routes.
B. Convergence cannot happen until holddown timers expire, so routing loops can occur.
C. Flooding the area topological database instances consumes excessive bandwidth.
D. Summary link LSAs cannot be sent until all routers in the OSPF area have the same topological database.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Instability of routes (links) would force sending of LSAs (Link State Advertisements), and CPU time would
be required to recalculate the routes.
Incorrect Answers:

B: OSPF does not use hold down timers. Holddown timers are used by distance vector protocols, such as RIP.
C: The topological database is not distributed, only link changes.
D: Summary-link LSAs are not sent to all routers. Summary-link LSAs originate from area border routers, and flood throughout the LSA’s associated area. Each summary-LSA describes a route to a destination outside the area but within the AS. Reference: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2328.html
QUESTION 17
A Certkiller OSPF router is configured in the following manner: router ospf 200 network 203.42.67.0
0.0.0.255 area 7 network 203.42.68.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 area 7 stub no-summary area 7 default-cost 30 Which of the following statements are true regarding this configuration? (Select two)
A. Area 7 is a totally stubby area.
B. If the backbone becomes discontiguous, traffic can be routed through area 7.
C. Redistribution of other routing protocols takes place at the area designated router.
D. Area 7 non-ABR routers contain only intra-area routing information and a default route.

Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
An extension to stub areas is what is called “totally stubby areas”. Cisco indicates this by adding
a “no-summary” keyword to the stub area configuration. A totally stubby area is one that blocks external
routes and summary routes (inter-area routes) from going into the area.
Note: The area stub command is used to define an area as a stub area.

Syntax: area area-id stub [no-summary]
The no-summary optional parameter prevents an ABR from sending summary link
advertisements into the stub area.
Reference: OSPF Design Guide
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/3.html

QUESTION 18
Router CK1 is an ABR in the Certkiller OSPF network. What does an ABR connect to?
A. Multiple OSPF areas
B. OSPF and RIP networks
C. Multiple designated routers
D. Multiple OSPF autonomous systems
E. Multiple redistributed networks.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
An ABR (Area Border Router) shares an interface with at least one other OSPF area. A router
that contains network/area statements for two or more different areas is an ABR.

QUESTION 19
You are a systems administrator of a large multi-area OSPF network, and you’ve just created a new area for an upcoming remote network. Ordinarily OSPF areas are be connected to the backbone, area 0. However, circumstances dictate you to connect it to the existing area 2 at this time. Which conditions have to be met in order to make this configuration work? (Select three)
A. There must be a virtual link.
B. Area 2 must be a stub area.
C. Area 2 cannot be a stub area.
D. Area 2 must attach directly to area 0.
E. Network summary link LSAs must be disabled.

Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
A: There must be a virtual link from the new area to the backbone, area 0. The virtual link provides the disconnected area a logical path to the backbone.
C: The area through which you configure the virtual link, known as a transit area (here area 2), must have full routing information. It cannot be a stub area.
D: The transit area, area 2, must attach directly to area 0. Reference: OSPF Virtual Link http:// www.cisco.com/warp/public/104/ospfdb7.html Incorrect Answers:
B: The transit area, area 2, cannot be a stub area.
E: This is not a requirement.
QUESTION 20
Which of the following is an OSPF configuration parameter that is used on an ABR, but not on an internal router?
A. A virtual link to area 0.
B. OSPF summarization command.

C. default-cost extension to the area command.
D. no-summary extension to the area stub command.
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The no-summary extension of the area stub command is used only for ABRs connected to
totally stubby areas. It prevents an ABR from sending summary link advertisements into the stub area.
This option is used for creating a totally stubby area.
Incorrect Answers:

A: For a virtual link to work both ends need to be configured. B, C: These commands are not specific to an ABR only.

 

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Exam A
QUESTION 1
A packet that needs to be forwarded arrives on an interface of a router. In order for a router to route data, what must that router determine? (Select the best answer)
A. The route age of the next-hop device
B. The subnet mask of the source network
C. The cost metric of the path of the destination
D. The outbound interface of the best path to the destination
E. All of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In order to route the data to the correct destination the router must know the outbound interface that provides the best destination. When a receives a packet that needs to be forwarded, the router determines the destination network, looks up the best path to that destination in the routing table, and then forwards the packet out the correct interface. Incorrect Answers:
A. The age of the next-hop router is not consulted before forwarding information.
B. The destination subnet mask is used by the router to determine the best path (most specific network match rule), but not the source subnet mask.
C. The cost metric is used by routing protocols to determine the best route to a destination. This best route is then installed into the routing table. The router uses the routing table to forward packets, but does not use the metrics for that specific route before forwarding each packet.

QUESTION 2
A new router is being installed into an existing network, and the routing table is being built for the first time on this network. Which of the following statements is true regarding the routing tables on a Cisco router?
A. Entries are listed in the order of the route cost metric.
B. Only the active link is shown for load-balanced routers.
C. Privileged EXEC mode is reuired to view the routing table.
D. The clear ip route * command refreshes the entire routing table.
E. All of the above are true.

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The show ip route command is used to display IP routing table entries. It can only be run in
privileged (enable) mode.
Incorrect Answers:

A. Entries are not listed in route cost order. Entries are ordered by destination IP address.
B. The other links in the load balanced bundle are also shown.
D. The clear ip route command is used the clear delete IP routing table entries. In particular the clear ip route * (or clear ip route all) command deletes IP routing table entries. This is not a refresh. Static routes will not be recreated.

QUESTION 3
Which of the following phrases is the correct term for what happens to a network when a topology change causes all the routers to synchronize their routing tables?
A. Flooding
B. Broadcasting
C. Convergence
D. Summarization
E. None of the above

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: A topology change forces a convergence of the routers to a new routing state.
Convergence is the time that it takes for all routers to agree on the network topology after a
change.
Incorrect Answers:

A. Flooding is the process of sending out routing topology information used by link state protocols.
B. Broadcasting is used on LAN level communications. By default, routers do not forward broadcasts.
D. Summarization is the act of taking multiple routes within the routing table, and advertising them as one less specific route.

QUESTION 4
What is the purpose of configuring a router with the “IP Helper address” command?
A. IP Helper is used to direct BOOTP clients to a BOOTP server.
B. IP Helper is used to prevent the router form forwarding IP broadcasts.
C. IP Helper is used to allow IPX clients to communicate with IP-based servers.
D. IP Helper is used to accommodate compatibility routers using different IP routing protocols.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The ip helper-address command is used to have the Cisco IOS software forward User Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcasts, including BOOTP, received on an interface. DHCP protocol information is carried inside of BOOTP packets. To enable BOOTP broadcast forwarding for a set of clients, configure a helper address on the router interface closest to the client. The helper address should specify the address of the DHCP server. Note: A DHCP server can be considered to be a BOOTP server, even though a DHCP server is more advanced. Incorrect Answers:
B. Combined with the ip forward-protocol global configuration command, the ip hel peraddress command allows you to control which broadcast packets and which protocols are forwarded. However, the main purpose of the IP helper feature is not to prevent the router from forwarding IP broadcasts.
C. IP helper does not use IPX.
D. This is false.

QUESTION 5
On router CK1 the command “ip helper address” is already configured. Which of the following commands would you use if you wanted to send SNMP broadcast packets off to a specific server?
A. ip server udp 161
B. ip helper-protocol 161
C. ip forward-protocol 161
D. ip directed-broadcast 161
E. ip forward snmp

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: SNMP requests are typically sent to UDP port 161.
The ip forward-protocol command is used to specify which protocols and ports the router
forwards when forwarding broadcast packets. If an IP helper address is defined, UDP forwarding is
enabled on default ports.
Note: Syntax: ip forward-protocol {udp [port] | nd | sdns}
Incorrect Answers:

A: The use of ip server udp is not correct.
B: There is no such command.
D: The ip directed-broadcast command is used to enable the translation of directed broadcast to physical broadcasts. It does not apply in this scenario. Furthermore, an access-list with number 161 has to be configured. Syntax: ip directed-broadcast [access-list-number] | [extended access-list-number]

QUESTION 6
When you execute the “ip helper-address” command on a router, which three UDP ports get enabled automatically by default? (Select three)
A. 53 (DNS)
B. 69 (TFTP)
C. 515 (LPR)
D. 161 (SNMP)
E. 49 (TACACS) Answer: A, B, E Explanation: To forward the BootP/DHCP reuest from the client to the DHCP server, the ip helper-address interface command is used. The IP helper-address can be configured to forward any UDP broadcast based on UDP port number. By default, the IP helper-address will forward the following UDP broadcasts: DNS (port 53), time service (port 37) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) (port 69) Terminal Access Control Access Control System (TACACS) service (port 49) NetBIOS name server (port 137) NetBIOS datagram server (port 138) Boot Protocol (DHCP/BootP) client and server datagrams (ports 67 and 68) IEN-116 name service (port 42) Reference: Understanding and Troubleshooting DHCP in Catalyst Switch or Enterprise Networks http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/473/100.html

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 7
Which administrative distance is given to EIGRP summary routes?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 5
D. 90
E. 95
F. 150

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The following table displays the default AD for all routing protocols:

QUESTION 8
If there is a route to the subnet 190.10.1.0/25 learned via RIP and a route to the subnet 190.10.1.0/24 learned via STATIC, which route would be preferred to reach the destination address 190.10.1.125?
A. The 190.10.1.0/25 route learned via RIP will be used because its prefix has the longest match.
B. RIP has an administrative distance of 120, and static routes have an administrative distance of 1, so the static route would be preferred.
C. The static route to 190.10.1.0/24 will be preferred because static routes have an administrative distance of 0 and the static route looks as though it is directly connected.
D. A show ip route to the destination will show that the destination is learned from both RIP and the static route, so the traffic to 190.10.1.1.125 will be load balanced between the two paths.
E. The information given is not sufficient to determine this.

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The longest match rule always takes precedence over any other routing information. The administrative distance (AD) values are only compared for destinations with subnet masks of eual length.

QUESTION 9
You are determining the routing protocol to use throughout your network. In doing this you compare the advantages of classless and classful protocols. Which of the following statements are true regarding classless routing protocols?
A. A default gateway is reuired.
B. Variable-length subnet masks are not supported.
C. Routers are automatically summarized to class boundaries.
D. Networks with different subnet masks can exist in the same address class.
E. All of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Classless routing protocols understand that different routes within a major network can have different
masks. They include VLSM information in the routing updates, enabling the use of different subnet mask

lengths.
Incorrect Answers:

A. There is no reuirement for a default gateway.
B. Classless routing protocols advertise the routing mask for each route. This enables VLSM (variable length subnet masks) support.
C. With classless routing the summarization process can manually controlled and can be invoked at any point within the network. It is not limited to class boundaries.

QUESTION 10
Which two of the following describe advantages of implementing a classless routing protocol, when compared to a classful routing protocol?
A. Support for VLSM.
B. Support for FLSM.
C. Summarization of discontinuous subnets.
D. Auto-summarization across network boundaries.
E. The ip classless command improves convergence time.

Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
A. Classless routing protocols support VLSM, and that, in turn, leads to more efficient
allocation of subnet masks to meet different host reuirements on different subnetworks,
resulting in better utilization of host addresses.

C. Because subnets routes are propagated throughout the routing domain, summarization is
often reuired to keep the routing tables at a manageable size.
Incorrect Answers:
B, D: Fixed Length Subnet Masks (FLSM) and auto-summarized routes across network
boundaries are functions of classful routing protocols, not classless.

E. The convergence time of a network is due to numerous factors, including the timers of the routing
protocol, as well as support for triggered updates. The “ip classless” command has no impact on the
convergence time of any network.
Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 19-20.

QUESTION 11
You wish to use a classless IP routing protocol within your network. Which of the following classless routing protocols could you use? (Select all that apply)
A. IS-IS
B. IGRP
C. RIPv1
D. OSPF
E. EIGRP

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
A. D, E
Explanation:
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and
Enhanced IGRP are all classless routing protocols.
Note: RIPv2 and BGP are also classless routing protocols.
Incorrect Answers:

B, C: IGRP and RIPv1 are not classless. Both of these protocols do not support VLSM networks.
QUESTION 12
The Certkiller network administrator is considering using a link state routing protocol to replace their existing distance vector protocol. Which if the following are true regarding link state routing protocols?
A. Link-state protocols do not support summarization.
B. Static routes must be used to accommodate link redundancy.
C. All routers in the area know when another router joins the area.
D. Link-state protocols utilize spanning tree to propagate routing changes.
E. The spanning tree protocol must be enabled for link state protocols to work.

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
All routers within an area will have the same view of the area, meaning they will all have the same topology
table. All of them will know when another router joins the area, since the routing topology table of all
routers in any area must remain identical.

Incorrect Answers

A: Link state protocols support route summarization, as well as variable length subnet masking.
B: Link redundancy does not reuire the use of static routes. Redundant links can be used with link state protocols, and load balancing over redundant links is also supported. D, E: The spanning tree is not to propagate routing changes. Instead it used to find the shortest path to the destinations. The spanning tree protocol is used at layer 2 to determine bridging and switching loops, not routing loops.
QUESTION 13
IS-IS and OSPF are two examples of link state routing protocols. Regarding the operation of link state protocols, which of the following are true?
A. Link state protocols periodically multicast the Link State Advertisements at 90 second intervals.
B. Link state routing protocols use Hello packets to build the link state database.
C. Link state routing protocols use poison reverse and holddown timer to prevent routing loops.
D. Link state routing protocols use Link State Advertisements to announce route changes.
E. All of the above

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: LSA – Link State Announcement. Used by OSPF, an LSA is used to announce changes in network topology to adjacent routers Each router periodically sends an LSA to provide information on a router’s adjacencies or to inform others when a router’s state changes. By comparing established adjacencies to link states, failed routers can be detected quickly and the network’s topology altered appropriately. From the topological database generated from LSAs, each router calculates a shortest-path tree, with itself as root. The shortest-path tree, in turn, yields a routing table.
Incorrect Answers:
A: Although link state protocols use multicasts for routing updates, they are sent using hellos. OSPF uses multicast IP addresses 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6. LSAs are not sent every 90 seconds.
B: The Hello Protocol is responsible for establishing and maintaining neighbor relationships. It is used to build the neighbor table, not the link state database.
C: These are loop avoidance mechanisms used by distance vector routing protocols, not link state.
QUESTION 14
One of the serial links in an OSPF network is experiencing problems and continuously changes from up to down. In a link-state environment, what does the router do when a route flaps?
A. It enters the exstart state with its neighbors.
B. It floods the area with new routing information.
C. It generates a routing exchange using the hello protocol.
D. It waits for the holdown timers to expire and then sends an update.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: One of the drawbacks of using OSPF is that it can be prone to issues resulting in flapping routes. OSPF is a very strong protocol in terms of convergence time-each router is aware of the entire topology in the area. This results in fast convergence. However, if a link flaps, or changes between up and down status uickly, a flood of LSAs may be generated. This may prevent the routers in the network from converging. Administrators may use the “spf holdtime” command to force OSPF into a waiting state before computing a new route.
QUESTION 15
You are an administrator of a network segment that uses RIP v2 as the routing protocol. How would the core router react if it were to detect a flapping link to a neighboring router?
A. It recalculates the network topology.
B. It purges that link from its routing table.
C. It places a hold-down on the routes from that link.
D. It sends a LSA to other router reuesting an RIP update.

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, which utilizes hold down timers and the rule of split horizons.
The purpose of the hold-down state is to ensure the validity of any new routes for the same destination.
Incorrect Answers:

A: RIP does not calculate a network topology.
B: This would not serve any practical purpose, since the purged link would then reappear. The link would be placed in a held state, but not purged.
D: OSPF utilizes link state advertisements (LSAs), but RIP routers do not.
QUESTION 16
Which of the following routing protocols listed below use the Class D address of 224.0.0.9 to multicast its routing updates?
A. EIGRP
B. OSPF
C. IGRP
D. RIPv2

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Class D addresses are multicast addresses used by many routing protocols for updating all neighbors on a link. Some of the Class D multicast addresses used by routing protocols are as follows: OSPF – 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6 Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPSv2) – 224.0.0.9 EIGRP – 224.0.0.10 Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press)
QUESTION 17
When comparing and contrasting the differences between classless and classful routing protocols, which of the following is true?
A. In a classful system, a router uses a bit mask to determine the network and host portions of an address and there is no class restriction.
B. In a classless system, a router determines the class of an address and then identifies the network and host octets based on that class.
C. In a classful system, subnet mask information is maintained and passed along with each routing update.
D. In a classless system, when a routing update is received about a different major network as configured on the receiving interface, the default subnet mask is applied.
E. In a classful system, when a routing update is received about the same major network as configured on the receiving interface, the router applies the subnet mask configured on the receiving interface.

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Routing protocols can be divided into various categories, such as classful or classless, and distance-vector or link-state. A classful routing protocol is one that exchanges routing information based on the classful IP boundaries. A router running a classful routing protocol such as RIPv1 or IGRP that receives an update for a network to which it is not physically connected will summarize that network at the default classful boundary. If the router received a route to network 10.1.2.0, for instance, it would summarize the route to 10.0.0.0 in its routing table, because an 8-bit (255.0.0.0) subnet mask is the default classful boundary for Class A addresses. A classless routing protocol, such as RIPv2, OSPF or EIGRP, exchanges the subnet mask with the subnet information. So if the aforementioned router was running OSPF, it would receive a route to network 10.1.2.0 with a 24-bit (255.255.255.0) subnet mask included, and would not summarize the route to 10.0.0.0.
QUESTION 18
Which two statements are true with regard to RIPv1 and OSPF? (Choose two)
A. RIPv1 uses the Dijkstra algorithm while OSPF uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm for calculating best path.
B. RIPv1 uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm, OSPF uses the Dijkstra algorithm for calculating best path.
C. RIP forwards the entire routing table incrementally, OSPF link-state advertisements are sent out when a change occurs and every thirty minutes if no change occurs.
D. RIPv1 maintains a 15 hop count limit while OSPF maintains a 255 hop count limit.
E. Both RIPv1 and OSPF carry subnet mask information and therefore support VLSM.

Correct Answer: BC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, which uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm for calculating the best path to a destination. OSPF is a link state routing protocol, which means that it uses the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the best path. RIP also periodically advertises the entire routing protocol to all neighbors, while OSPF uses LSA information to flood the area with routing information, but only after a topology change has occurred. To maintain stability, OSPF also floods out the entire OSPF table every thirty minutes if no change has occurred. Incorrect Answers:
A: The reverse is true.
D: RIP maintains a hop limit of 15 (16 means it is unreachable) but OSPF does not have any hop limitations.
E: RIPv1 does not carry the subnet mask information in the routing updates, and so it does not support VLSM. RIPv2 does, however.
QUESTION 19
The Certkiller IGRP network is displayed in the diagram below:

Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are running IGRP. Certkiller 1 receives an update on its Fa0/0 interface from Certkiller 2 about the 199.10.50.64/26 network. Which mask will be applied to the update?
A. 255.255.255.0
B. 255.255.255.192
C. 255.255.0.0
D. 255.255.255.255

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The ability to specify a different subnet mask for the same network number on different subnets is called Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM). RIPv1 and IGRP are classful protocols and are incapable of carrying subnet mask information in their updates. Before RIPv1 or IGRP sends out an update, it performs a check against the subnet mask of the network that is about to be advertised and, in case of VLSM, the subnet gets dropped. In this example, first router Certkiller 2 checks to see whether 199.10.50.64/26 is part of the same major net as 10.10.0.0/16, which is the network assigned to the interface that will be sourcing the update. It is not, and so Certkiller 2 will summarize at the network boundary, which is 199.10.50.0/24 since this is a class C network.
QUESTION 20
You’re a systems administrator who’s just chosen OSPF over RIP version 1. Your junior administrator Britney is confused and asks you why you didn’t choose RIP. What would you tell her? (Choose all that apply)
A. OSPF maintains smaller routing tables than RIP
B. OSPF cost metric is based on number of hops.
C. OSPF only sends routing updates only when necessary.
D. OSPF supports VLSM and allows more efficient use of IP addresses.

Correct Answer: CD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: C: RIP use periodic broadcast of the entire routing table, while OSPF use event-triggered announcements. OSPF uses
D: RIP Version 1 does not support VLSM, while OSPF does. Incorrect Answers:
A: The size of the routing table depends on the number of routes. Since RIP version 1 automatically summarizes at the network boundary, the routing tables of RIP networks are generally smaller than OSPF networks.
B: RIP uses hop as cost metric. OSPF uses a metric based on the bandwidth of the links to the destination.

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Exam A
QUESTION 1
The Dev-1 and Dev-3 routers are OSPF neighbors over the Ethernet 0/0 connection. Based on the show ip ospf neighbor output from the Dev-1 and Dev-3 routers, which statement is true?

A. Dev-1 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority.
B. Dev-1 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID.
C. Dev-3 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority.
D. Dev-3 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID.
E. Both Dev-1 and Dev-3 are using the default OSPF router priority.
Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 2
Refer to the exhibit. Router RA is not able to ping the loopback Lo0 on router RB. What could the problem be?

A. The loopback addresses have different subnet masks.
B. Router RA is using RIP version 1 while Router RB is using RIP version 2.
C. Router RA is using plain text authentication while Router RB is using encrypted authentication.
D. MD5 authentication is not possible with RIP.
E. The key strings do not match.
F. The key chains do not match.
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 3
When the BGP path selection process is being performed on a Cisco router, which BGP attribute is used first when determining the best path?
A. local preference
B. MED
C. weight
D. origin
E. next-hop
F. AS-path
Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 4
Which two are characteristics of the IS-IS protocol but not OSPF? (Choose two.)
A. provides for network scalability by allowing the network to be separated into areas
B. provides routing support for multiple network layer protocols
C. three layers of hierarchical routing
D. utilizes SPF algorithm
E. forms adjacencies with all neighbors
F. supports demand circuit routing
Correct Answer: BE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 5
Which three characteristics apply to IS-IS but not to OSPF? (Choose three.)
A. encapsulates PDUs directly into a data-link frame
B. uses a DIS and a backup DIS to present the psuedo-node on the LAN
C. uses stubby areas to improve network scalability
D. uses a default IOS metric of 10 on each interface
E. runs PRC (Partial Route Calculations) to calculate IP reachability information
F. uses an on-demand circuit to reduce the hello and LSA flooding across switched WAN links, such as ISDN
Correct Answer: ADE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 6
What are two routing protocols defined by the OSI protocol suite at the network layer? (Choose two.)
A. End System-to-End System
B. Routing Information Protocol
C. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
D. End System-to-Intermediate System
E. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
Correct Answer: DE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 7
Refer to exhibit. BGP is configured on all routers, synchronization is turned off, and none of the default attributes have been changed except the local preference attribute on R4. Which path will be preferred by R2 to reach the network 100.100.100.0/24?
A. R2 – R3 – R4 – R5 because it has a lower admin distance
B. R2 – R3 – R4 – R5 because it has a higher local preference
C. R2 – R1 because it has the shortest AS-path
D. R2 – R1 because it has a lower local preference
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 8
Router E is configured with the EIGRP variance 2 command. What path will Router E take to reach Router A?

A. only E-D-A
B. only E-B-A
C. only E-C-A
D. both E-B-A and E-C-A
E. both E-B-A and E-D-A
F. all available paths.
Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 9
LAB
A.
B.
C.
D.
Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Answer: Check certifyme eEngine, Download from Member Center
QUESTION 10
Drag Drop question

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Answer: Check certifyme eEngine, Download from Member Center
QUESTION 11
Router RTA is configured as follows:RTA (config)#router ripRTA(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0RTA(config-router)#distribute-list 44 in interface BRI0 RTA(config-router)#exitRTA(config)#access-list 44 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255RTA(config)#access-list 44 permit anyWhat are the effects of this RIP configuration on router RTA? (Choose two.)

A. no routing updates will be sent from router RTA on interface BRI0 to router RTX
B. router RTA will not advertise the 10.0.0.0 network to router RTX
C. the route to network 172.16.1.0 will not be entered into the routing table on router RTA
D. user traffic from the 172.16.1.0 network is denied by access-list 44
E. the routing table on router RTA will be updated with the route to router RTW
Correct Answer: CE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 12
Which three statements about IS-IS are true? (Choose three.)
A. L1 routers have no knowledge about routes outside their area.
B. L1/L2 routers maintain a separate Level 1 link-state database and a Level 2 link-state database; they do not advertise L2 routes to L1 routers.
C. To route packets to another area, L1 routers must forward the packets to the L2 router of the destination area.
D. To route packets to another area, L1 routers must forward the packets to an L1/L2 router within their area.
E. L2 routers form adjacencies with L1 and L1/L2 neighbors.
Correct Answer: ABD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 13
Which three types of OSPF route entries can be found in the routing table of an internal OSPF router within an OSPF stubby area? (Choose three.)
A. O
B. O IA
C. O* IA
D. O E1
E. O E2
F. O N1
Correct Answer: ABC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 14
You have an address range of 172.16.20.192 to 172.16.20.223. Which two configuration commands are used in configuring the area 3 border router for network summarization? (Choose two.)
A. network 172.16.20.192 0.0.0.31 area 3
B. area 3 range 172.16.20.192 172.16.20.223
C. area 3 range 172.16.20.192 255.255.255.224
D. network 172.16.20.192 255.255.255.224 area 3
Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 15
Refer to the exhibit. What is the correct configuration to enable router P4 to exchange RIP routing updates with router P1 but not with router P3?

A. P4(config)# interface fa0/0P4(config-if)# neighbor 192.168.10.3P4(config-if)# passive-interface fa0/0
B. P4(config)# router ripP4(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.10.3P4(config-router)# passive-interface fa0/0
C. P4(config)# interface fa0/0P4(config-if)# neighbor 192.168.10.3P4(config-if)# passive-interface
192.168.10.34
D. P4(config)# router ripP4(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.10.34 no broadcastP4(config-router)# passive-interface fa0/0
Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 16
Which three are characteristics of IPv6? (Choose three.)
A. An IPv6 address is 128 bits long.
B. An IPv6 header is 20 bits long.
C. An IPv6 header contains the next header field.
D. An IPv6 header contains the protocol field.
E. IPv6 routers send RA messages.
F. An IPv6 header contains the header checksum field.
Correct Answer: ACE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 17
Which address type does the IPv6 address FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 specify?
A. unspecified
B. aggregable global unicast
C. link local
D. site local unicast
E. multicast
Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 18
LAB Correct Answers: Portland# conf t Portland(config)# router ospf 1 Portland(config-router)# network 192.168.5.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 Portland(config-router)# area 1 stub Portland(config-router)# end Portland# copy run start
Indianapolis# conf t Indianapolis(config)# router ospf 1 Indianapolis(config-router)# network 192.168.5.4 0.0.0.3 area 1 Indianapolis(config-router)# area 1 stub no-summary Indianapolis(config-router)# end Indianapolis# copy run start

A.
B.
C.
D.
Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Answer: Check certifyme eEngine, Download from Member Center
QUESTION 19
Which IS-IS NET represents a locally administered private address?
A. 39.0040.0010.0c99.1112.00
B. 45.0004.0000.0d35.4554.00
C. 47.0010.0000.0a11.3564.00
D. 49.0001.0000.0c12.3456.00
Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 20
Which two statements are true concerning IPv6? (Choose two.)
A. Mobile IP is built into IPv6 by default.
B. The leading zeros in an address format are mandatory.
C. Like IPv4, IPv6 broadcasts are sent to all nodes on a LAN segment.
D. IPSec is mandatory and built into IPv6.
Correct Answer: AD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

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